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Skills

Event Skills
The WorldSkills Competition is the world's largest technical and vocational competition.
WorldSkills Competitions measure excellence, celebrate Champions, and encourage hundreds of thousands of young people to turn their passions into a profession. Competitor begin their development at local, regional and national competitions, before representing their country and region at the international level.
WorldSkills Competitions are held over two years and are a unique opportunity for countries and regions to benchmark their vocational education and training systems.
Our Competitions feature more than fifty skills across a wide range of industries. The level of competition at WorldSkills inspires many young people who see it, to consider pursuing these skills themselves, or to set up businesses with skills at their heart.
The WorldSkills event is not just a Competition – it includes a world-class Conference at which Ministers, policy-makers, and academics debate developments in the sector.
The WorldSkills Competition is the world's largest technical and vocational competition.
WorldSkills Competitions measure excellence, celebrate Champions, and encourage hundreds of thousands of young people to turn their passions into a profession. Competitor begin their development at local, regional and national competitions, before representing their country and region at the international level.
WorldSkills Competitions are held over two years and are a unique opportunity for countries and regions to benchmark their vocational education and training systems.
Our Competitions feature more than fifty skills across a wide range of industries. The level of competition at WorldSkills inspires many young people who see it, to consider pursuing these skills themselves, or to set up businesses with skills at their heart.
The WorldSkills event is not just a Competition – it includes a world-class Conference at which Ministers, policy-makers, and academics debate developments in the sector.

Skills

Skills

Manufacturing and Engineering Technology
  • Industrial Mechanics

    Industrial Mechanics

    Industrial mechanics design and plan, install and commission, maintain, repair, and decommission, industrial plant. They work in a large range of industrial settings and production plants and may either have specialist knowledge about one particular industry or work across several. They may be employed within a large single plant, installing and maintaining production equipment, or work for subcontractors across a number of industrial settings. They normally work both indoors and outdoors, on small and large projects.

    Industrial mechanics may manufacture parts and equipment, improve, modify, maintain, troubleshoot, and repair industrial machinery, mechanical equipment, and, increasingly, automated and robotics systems. They work in teams, or alone, according to each project and circumstance. They are likely to have ongoing contact with other trades, professions, and stakeholders such as customers and employers. The working environment may well be hazardous; therefore, industrial mechanics need proactively to promote best practice, with rigorous adherence to health and safety legislation, as a minimum.

    Industrial mechanics must take on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. The role is wide-ranging, and every step is important. They must design, plan and provide a safe mechanical installation and maintenance service, in accordance with relevant standards; diagnose and correct malfunctions; and commission stand-alone industrial mechanical and automated systems. Concentration, precision, accuracy, and attention to detail are all essential because mistakes are largely irreversible, costly and potentially life threatening.

    Industrial mechanics must recognize the implications, both financially and for businesses’ reputations, of delays in production as a result of reliability issues on production lines. They therefore need to work logically and flexibly to find solutions that meet time constraints. They also need to provide Expert technical advice and guidance, and provide innovative and cost-effective solutions to production issues. Therefore, in addition to their specialist and technical expertise, the industrial mechanic must have strong work organization, communication and interpersonal skills, and be self-managing. Given the pace of industrial change, and growing environmental concerns, they must also maintain high levels of awareness and openness to their own professional development.

  • Manufacturing Team Challenge

    Manufacturing Team Challenge

    The skill competition of Manufacturing Team Challenge is based on the design, manufacture assembly and testing of equipment by teams of complementary specialists. In either large or small manufacturing operations there is a strong demand for several specialists to come together to design, manufacture, assemble, and test new or improved equipment either as a one-off item or as the prototype for mass production.

    Technicians skilled in project management, computer-aided design, programming, machining, welding, electrical/electronic, and fitting can combine to form efficient and effective teams covering design through to commissioning. While each specialism has value, each team member requires additional attributes. The capacity to work within and contribute to a team is vital, requiring both self-understanding and interpersonal skills. Team members also need the ability to think beyond their own specialisms and the boundaries of each skill, in order to make the most of the team’s combined efforts.

    This skill has exceptional value as an exemplar of modern manufacturing practices. Whatever the size or sector of the manufacturing organization, continuous improvement and innovation are key to its survival and prosperity. These features do not happen in isolation, but through the combined efforts of high level, insightful specialists. Where diverse manufacturing teams are most successful, this will also be due to the inclusion within the team of both broad and specific financial and organizational skills. These skills will strictly control time and cost while seeking at all times to go beyond the client’s expectations for quality.

    Whatever their specialism, members of successful manufacturing teams have the opportunity to generate the skills normally associated with accelerated promotion and management development. As the skills also associated with successful.

  • Mechatronics

    Mechatronics

    Mechatronics combines skills in mechanics, pneumatics, hydraulics, electrics, electronics, computer technology, production digitalization technology (industrial ioT: RFID, NFC, wireless communication, PLC web-server, Cyber Security, Vision Systems, Augmented reality, etc), robotics and systems development. The computer technology element covers the programming of PLC’s, robots and other handling systems and information technology applications, programmable machine control systems, and technology which enable communication between machines, equipment, and people.

    Mechatronics technicians design, build, commission, maintain, repair, and adjust automated industrial equipment, and also program equipment control systems and human machine interfaces (HMI). They are also able to handle fluids in the field of industrial applications. Outstanding mechatronics technicians are able to meet a variety of needs within industry. They carry out mechanical maintenance and equipment building. They also deal with equipment for information gathering, components (sensors), and regulating units.

    The mechatronics Technician abides by safety procedures and standards for industrial contexts, mostly where machinery is involved. They also know the importance of safety devices and know how to install them.

    Industrial applications include automated production and process lines that include assembly, packaging, filling, labelling, and testing, as well as automated distribution and logistics systems.

  • Mechanical Engineering CAD

    Mechanical Engineering CAD

    Mechanical engineering computer aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of an engineering design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communication through documentation, and create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, manufacturing documentation, or other manufacturing processes.

    The technical and engineering drawings and images must convey information such as materials, processes, dimensions and tolerances according to application-specific conventions. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space or curves, surfaces and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space. CAD is also used to produce computer animation for the special effects used in, for example, advertising and technical manuals.

    CAD is an important industrial art and is the way projects come true. It is extensively used in many applications, including automotive, ship building and aerospace industries, and in industrial design. The CAD process and outputs are essential to successful solutions for engineering and manufacturing problems.

    CAD software helps us explore ideas, visualize concepts through photorealistic renderings and movies, and simulates how a design project will perform in the real world.

  • CNC Turning

    CNC Turning

    CNC Machining has become one of the most important current machining processes in modern industry. Parts are made for household-equipment, telecommunications, cars, ships, aeroplanes, oil rigs, bridges, aerospace etc. Customers come from virtually every sector.

    In CNC Machining the movements of the machine through computers and servomotors are dictated by the programmer. Once correctly programmed and set up, these machines can produce almost any shape and can repeat the process many times. This offers great advantages for quality and efficiency.

    CNC Machining covers a broad variety of machining processes, such as grinding, welding, electrical discharging, milling and also turning.

    Some may think that lathes (turning machines) are built to make round parts; however, CNC lathes are capable of producing almost any shape and any part.

    Every customer has different requirements and demands and therefore each part is made of different materials, and needs different geometries, dimensions and surface qualities. To explain all the desired requirements to the machinist, the customer produces a technical drawing.

    Machining starts with deciding how best to produce the part. There are many ways of doing this, like welding, milling, casting, and 3D Printing. One very important method is CNC Turning.

    A CNC lathe is a very accurate computer-driven machine, where cutting tools, controlled by a program, are moved to cut away excessive material to result in the expected customer part. The CNC Turning machinist receives the technical drawing and uses the lathe in many ways to find solutions to build the part. These machines are very expensive, because they can do remarkable things. To have an idea of this, think what it means to achieve accuracy below ten microns, which is six to10 times thinner than a human hair.

    The CNC Turning machinist uses a computer to tell the lathe how to move the tools and cut the part to the desired shape. They must also set up the lathe with all the necessary clamping devices, support devices, and cutting tools. These tools can cut almost every material (stainless steel, plastic, soft steel, aluminium, bronze, and so on). But the machinist has to choose well to avoid temperature variations, tool wear or vibration. Those factors influence the product and it can result in poor quality.

    When the machine starts cutting material, the machinist makes sure that the dimensions exactly fit the customer specifications. For this, very accurate inspection tools are used. Once the machine is set up, the CNC-Turning machinist also monitors and optimizes the processes, to achieve even faster and better results for all the following parts.

  • CNC Milling

    CNC Milling

    Computer Numerical Control (CNC) technology has become omnipresent. Most people cannot imagine how important these technologies are in their lives. There is nothing that we use that hasn’t in its manufacturing utilized CNC technology. It is present in products and objects of everyday life, such as cars, airplanes, components of machines of all types, moulds for tools used for household machines, medical prosthetics, cell phones, and toys.

    CNC milling machines are machine tools used for the shaping of metal and other solid materials. These machines exist in two basic forms: horizontal and vertical. This refers to the orientation of the cutting tool spindle. Early milling machines were manually or mechanically automated, but technological advances have led to the development of Computer Numerical Control, such as the CNC machining centre. CNC refers to a computer-controlled device to read and store instructions. This numerical information, generally “G and M” codes (a programming language) is then used to control and drive a machine tool which is a powered mechanical device (“machining centre”). A machining centre is used to fabricate components using cutting tools for removing the material.

    To form the finished part, the cutting process can be started from a solid block, pre-machined part, casting, or forgings. For those scenarios, the skill requires the highly skilled CNC milling machinist must read and interpret complex technical drawings and specifications, and work to a high degree of precision and detail. They must be proficient in metal work and understand how metals react to various processes. They must be a skilled computer operator and machine operator. The programs can be generated manually or using Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD/CAM) software.

    To achieve the finished part, the CNC milling machinist undertakes a sequence of essential activities, from interpreting engineering drawings to optimizing the machining process:

    • Interpreting engineering drawings and following the specifications
    • Generating the processes and programs with the CAD/CAM system and/or G and M-codes
    • Setting up the tools, work holding devices, and work pieces on the CNC milling centre
    • Manipulating cutting conditions, based on the properties of the material and tools
    • Operating, inspecting, and maintaining the accuracy of dimensions within the specified tolerances
    • Optimizing the process, taking into account the production type: whether large quantities of one part, small batches, or one-of-a-kind items.

    Today a wide range of industries require CNC milling machinists to program, operate, and keep sophisticated machining centre’s running in an efficient and reliable way. Large enterprises such as automobile plants, medium sized enterprises such as mould making, and small enterprises in the maintenance field, are some of many environments in which the CNC milling machinist plays a key, integral role to the success of the metalwork industries.

  • Welding

    Welding

    Welding is a critical process that is controlled by both national and international standards and specifications to regulate the quality of the deposited weld metal and the skill of the welder.

    A welder prepares and joins a range of metals and metallic alloys using mainly processes where an electric arc is the heat source. Electric arc processes utilize a gas shield or a flux to protect the molten weld area from contamination by the surrounding atmosphere. A welder needs to be able to interpret engineering drawings, standards and symbols and correctly translate these requirements into accurate structures and fabrications.

    Welders need to have a thorough knowledge and understanding of safe working practices, personal protection equipment and the hazards and practices associated with the welding and fabrication industries. They need to gain specific knowledge of a wide range of welding equipment and processes as well as an understanding of how welding will affect the structure of the material being welded. They need to be familiar with electricity and how it is utilized for welding.

    A welder prepares, assembles and joins a wide range of metals and metal alloys using various welding processes including manual metal arc welding, shielded metal arc welding, metal arc gas shielded welding, gas metal arc welding, tungsten arc gas shielded welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and flux cored arc welding. A welder will use mainly processes where the heat utilized for welding will be an electric arc to join a range of materials including the commonly joined and fabricated materials – carbon steel, stainless steels, aluminium and copper and their associated alloys. They must be able to select the correct equipment, process variables, and welding technique, depending upon the material being joined.

    Welders may use thermal cutting processes and should be able to identify the correct preparation for joining as applied to the type, thickness and intended use of the joint. They use grinding and cutting equipment to prepare welded joints. Modern methods of joining, as well as those noted above, include mechanized processes such as submerged arc, plasma arc, stud welding, and laser welding.

    Welders join sections, pipe and plate and fabricate large and small pressure vessels. A welder can work in a unit or factory which produces fabrications and/or structures for industries as diverse as civil engineering, mechanical engineering, transport, marine engineering, construction, service, and leisure industries. Welders also work on site preparation, construction, and the repair and maintenance of structures. A welder can work in many locations and situations, ranging from a bench in a factory, to shipyards, power stations and off-shore structures. Welders also work in engineering, construction, power generating, and petro-chemical plants. The working environment may include hazards such as being off shore, with extreme weather conditions and also in confined spaces where access to the joint to be welded is restricted.

    The modern welder may specialize in one or a number of welding processes and environments. They may also be asked to work on exotic alloys such as duplex and super duplex stainless steels and cupronickels. Welders are required to carry out the finest work where faults and failure may have the most serious consequences in terms of cost, safety and environmental damage.

  • Electronics

    Electronics

    The electronics industry is very diverse and has evolved into several specialisms. Some Engineering Technicians/Technologists will work across many aspects of electronics but increasing specialization and technical developments means that specialist Engineering Technician/Technologist are widely employed.

    The key areas of specialism which can be seen as careers in their own right include the assembly and wiring of electronic products; the designing of prototype circuits to specifications and/or to solve specified technical problems; the installation and commissioning of equipment including the provision of customer support; service and maintenance which includes service at customer/repair/service-depot locations and remotely; and monitoring and testing to specifications: circuits, sub-assemblies and systems. Approving: circuits, sub-assemblies, systems as fit-for-purpose or meeting government regulations.

    Electronics Engineering Technician/Technologists also rely on Schematic Capture and Layout software to create/verify/simulate schematic circuits and printed circuit boards. This is a specialised occupation in its own right, and also involves the creation of production documents such as Bills of Material, Gerber Files and Excellon drill files, and other automated equipment files.

    Electronics specialists work in a wide range of industries supported by highly technical specialist equipment. Almost every aspect of today’s world relies on, or directly uses, electronics technology. It can be said that all technologies today use Electronics in one form or another.

    Electronics Engineering Technician/Technologists must work with a high degree of accuracy and precision, conforming to detailed specifications and international quality standards and demonstrating extensive technical ability. Due to the constant developments in technology, the electronics Engineering Technician/Technologist needs to be proactive in ensuring that his/her skills and knowledge are up-to-date and meet industry standards and expectations.

    The Engineering Technician/Technologist may work directly with clients and will therefore need to demonstrate excellent customer service and communication skills and work effectively to time schedules. When working with clients, the Engineering Technician/Technologist may have to explain elements of complex electronics principles to assist the client to use equipment correctly. Often the nature of the establishment in which the electronics Engineering Technician/Technologist works will require them to respect confidentiality in relation to highly commercially sensitive information and to demonstrate integrity, honesty, and a strong ethical sense.

    The electronics specialist will work with a wide range of tools. These tools are often specialized and include measurement test equipment. Computers and specialist software development tools are used to create programs for embedded systems, programmable devices, and desktop systems. In addition, tasks will also require the use of specialist hand tools for the assembly and maintenance and rework of circuits. Surface mounted technology (SMT) is the dominant technology.

    Industry also relies on Engineering Technician/Technologists to implement software solutions used to address manufacturing requirements. Engineering Technician/Technologists may also setup, configure and tune automated assemblies, circuits, systems, and processes.

    Embedding microcontroller units (MCUs) into systems forms the basis for Embedded Systems Engineering and is another electronics specialism. Embedded System design involves interfacing MCUs to the outside world via sensors/communication interfaces. It also involves the writing of quality software to perform required tasks.

  • Industrial Control

    Industrial Control

    Industrial Control contains elements of both electrical installations and automation installations, with greater emphasis on automation installation. The industrial control practitioner requires a wide range of technical skills, such as installing conduits, cables, instruments, I/O devices and Programmable Logic Controllers. The industrial control practitioner also designs electrical circuits, programs Programmable Logic Controllers, parametrizes bus systems and configures Human Machine Interfaces.

    The working environment is likely to be one that is potentially very dangerous and hazardous. The industrial control practitioner proactively promotes best practices in health and safety and rigorously adheres to health and safety legislation.

    Troubleshooting is an important skill of the industrial control practitioner and includes identifying problems during equipment installations in a new plant or remedying problems within an existing plant.

    The industrial control practitioner has a wide range of industrial settings in which to work. They may be employed in one particular plant and install and maintain production equipment; or they may be employed by a sub-contractor and work in a number of industrial settings.

    Delays in production as a result of reliability issues on the production line can have business implications not only financially but also for the company’s reputation. Therefore, the industrial control practitioner needs to work efficiently and effectively to meet time constraints, while also providing expert advice and guidance to management on both technical production issues and on innovative and cost-effective solutions to production problems and requirements. A key skill of the practitioner is troubleshooting, identifying problems during installation, or remedying problems with an established plant.

  • Mobile Robotics

    Mobile Robotics

    Mobile Robotics is a fast evolving, solutions orientated, industry within which the robotics/technologist is a significant and growing work role. Mobile robotics is an important part of the future, with applications in everyday life, diverse industries, including autonomous vehicles, manufacturing, agriculture, aerospace, mining, and medicine.

    A robotics technologist works in offices, manufacturing plants or laboratories; he or she designs, maintains, develops new applications and conducts research to expand the potential for robots. The role begins with a strong focus on a specific business problem, in a particular sector. For example, in manufacturing there may be a need to increase capacity by creating robots for tasks that can be automated. Mobile robots may also be designed to explore areas that are inaccessible or dangerous for human beings.

    Careful, deep client consultation is required, resulting in an accurate specification. The design phase follows and a prototype is assembled. The robot is then programmed and tested to ensure high, consistent performance. At the heart of every robot is a robotics technologist who thinks about what a robot needs to do and works with several disciplines to design and put together the optimal piece of equipment, demonstrating a commitment to attention to detail. In this instance the robotics technologist uses existing technologies to create solutions to new challenges.

    Robotics technologists must be familiar with logic, microprocessors, computer programming, mechanical, electrical, and control system so that they can design and prototype the right robot for each application. They must also prepare specifications for the robot's capabilities as they relate to the everyday life. In addition, robotics technologists are responsible for cost efficient design, cost-price calculations and quality-control.

    Integral to the role of the high performing robotics technologist are a range of skills related to work organization and self-management. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills, with a particular strength in working well in a team, are equally important. An ability to be innovative and creative in resolving technological challenges and generating solutions is also essential.

    Working across sectors internationally and being able to transfer analytical skills is a feature of the excellent robotics technologist, together with a commitment to continuing specialist, and professional development and a determination to resolve problems through experimenting and risk taking within self-managed boundaries. In an increasingly global industry, which is ‘breaking new ground’ and altering the way we live and work, there are significant opportunities for sustainable careers in robotics. The opportunities carry with them the need to work with diverse cultures, industries and fast paced technological change. The diversity of skills associated with robotics technologists is likely to expand.

  • Construction Metal Work

    Construction Metal Work

    Construction metalworking is the assembly and installation of steel structures, vessels and components that encompass the food & dairy, pharmaceutical & chemical industries, architectural engineering and structural steel work for buildings and bridges. Very high standards of finish and quality are expected from the construction metalworker as food and pharmaceutical products are transported and produced from steel components that a construction metalworker would assemble. High-rise buildings, stadiums and bridges are erected using the skills of the construction metalworker along with cutting edge architectural designs that affect the modern landscape for innovative building designs.

    The skills required for construction metalworking involve:

    • A thorough knowledge and understanding of safe working practices, personal protection equipment and the hazards and practices associated with the construction metalworking industry
    • The interpretation of engineering drawings
    • Knowledge of mathematical calculations, geometrical construction techniques and computer-aided design and drafting software applications
    • Knowledge and use of new technologies for developing patterns and other purposes
    • A comprehensive knowledge of a range of industrial cutting and forming processes to suit a range of steels and alloys including low carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy steels, aluminium alloys and also working with different tube & pipe standards
    • Shaping and forming these steel components with the aid of thermal processes and a range of machinery used in cutting, bending, and rolling metal plate
    • Using modern thermal cutting processes such as plasma, laser and waterjet cutting techniques through the use of computer-aided design (CAD) software that architects, engineers, and construction professionals rely on to create precise 2D drawings
    • Applying a range of welding processes such as Manual Metal Arc welding, TIG/TAG (Tungsten Inert Gas and Tungsten Active Gas) welding, MIG/MAG (Metal Inert Gas and Metal Active Gas) welding to assemble and join materials into structures and products

    Work organization and self-management, working precisely and accurately, concentration, attention to detail, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, are the universal attributes of the construction metal worker.

    Construction metalworkers are highly skilled individuals who are able to work autonomously, contribute to a technical team, take personal responsibility for completing projects to approved quality standards in a timely manner, and interact effectively with colleagues and customers in an industrial setting. Every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    With the international mobility of people, construction metalworkers face rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For talented construction metalworkers, there are many commercial and international opportunities, which carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends.

  • Plastic Die Engineering

    Plastic Die Engineering

    Plastic Die engineering is the mass production of plastic products of high quality at low cost. Plastic injection moulded components are used in telecommunications, medical, aerospace, and automobile industries, home appliances, office automation, entertainment, and electronics. Within this sector, plastic die technicians, otherwise known as mould makers, carry out a range of different duties which vary depending on the organisation they work for. Based on occupational data, mould makers must:

    • Create and develop new tooling for plastic moulding dies using the specifications provided by separate design teams
    • Plan the moulds initially by studying and interpreting the drawings or computer aided design (CAD) models supplied to them. They usually work with the design teams because they need to be familiar with each mould design concept, and with the CAD software used for making the designs. They study the dimensions and tolerances of each mould elements and ensure they are appropriate for the assembly and function of the mould. They also analyse the feasibility of the manufacture, given the available resources
    • Set up equipment by interpreting the design and drawing of each mould’s parts and the properties of the materials. Since much of the machining process uses computer numerical controlled (CNC) machines, they also must know how to operate CNC machines, and create programmes. They should be familiar with various mould polishing equipment and techniques. Once each mould is assembled and ready for testing, they conduct trials and prove each mould on an injection moulding machine. They must set up and control the moulding parameters in order to produce defect-free mouldings (plastic parts)
    • Maintain and repair all equipment to ensure that each mould run is as required.

    Plastic die technicians may also create prototype of products, jigs, and fixtures to facilitate production (machining, assembly, and inspection) etc.

    Mould makers need good technical skills and dexterity to work with precision equipment and tools, as well as strong mathematical and problem-solving skills. To liaise with design teams and colleagues they require both formal and informal communication and interpersonal skills.

  • Prototype Modelling

    Prototype Modelling

    The prototype modelling practitioner is involved with the design, creation, testing, and modification of prototypes. In many fields, there is great uncertainty as to whether a new design will actually do what is desired. New designs often have unexpected problems. A prototype is often used as part of the product design process to give engineers and designers the ability to explore design alternatives, test theories, and confirm performance prior to starting production of a new product. Prototype modelling

    practitioners use their experience to tailor prototypes according to the specific unknowns still present in the intended designs. For example, some prototypes are used to confirm and verify consumer interest in a proposed design, whereas other prototypes will attempt to verify the performance or suitability of a specific design approach.

    In general, an iterative series of prototypes will be designed, constructed, and tested as the final design emerges and is prepared for production. In most cases, multiple iterations of prototypes are used progressively to refine the design. It is common to design, test, evaluate, and then modify the design based on analysis of the prototype.

    In many product development organizations, prototyping specialists are employed. These are individuals with specialized training and skills in general fabrication techniques that can help bridge theoretical designs and fabrication of prototypes. For a company engaged in rapid prototyping and manufacturing or functional testing, prototype models are crucial for troubleshooting potential problems in the design process.

    A team with excellent interpersonal and communication skills will provide clients with confidence that the specialist advice and guidance resulting from prototyping fully supports their production plans. The prototyping engineering technician will require a range of skills including 3D CAD systems, CAM systems such as milling, printing, and other CAM machining, vacuum casting, prototype model making by hand tools and machines, and spray painting and finishing.

  • Chemical Laboratory Technology

    Chemical Laboratory Technology

    The work of laboratory chemical analyst is the basis of the product quality in many industries. Chemical analysis is necessary to control the compliance of the properties of raw materials, intermediate stages of the technological process, and finished products with current standards.

    The laboratory chemical analyst performs laboratory analyses, tests, measurements aimed at determining

    • The qualitative chemical composition of a substance
    • The quantitative ratio of chemical elements and compounds within them
    • Processing of the obtained data,
    • Reporting results of analyses and
    • Other types of laboratory work

    according with the requirements of standards and specifications. The scope and complexity of the tests performed depend on the type of tasks set by the employer.

    The role includes knowledge of the following objects of professional activity:

    • Natural and industrial materials;
    • Synthetic materials;
    • Equipment and instruments;
    • Regulatory and technical documents.

    Laboratory chemical analysts should be ready to determine the optimal tools and methods for the analysis of various natural and synthetic materials, to perform qualitative and quantitative tests using modern chemical and physico-chemical analytical methods. They should be able to act logically and systematically, complying with sanitary and hygienic requirements and occupational safety and health standards.

    Usually, laboratory chemical analysts work in the chemical laboratories of quality control departments, research and development departments, or in environmental departments in plants in various industries: chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and the supply of construction materials, paint and varnish, polymers, defence and many others.

  • Water Technology

    Water Technology

    Water Technicians may work on the supply of water, or the treatment of wastewater, or on both simultaneously or sequentially.

    Water Supply Engineering Technicians work in municipal and industrial water supply companies. They carry out their work independently on the basis of technical documents and rules as well as on legal bases. Water Supply Technicians procure information, plan, and coordinate their work. They document their services and take measures to ensure quality assurance, safety, health, and environmental protection at work.

    They may work in large or small facilities for processing drinking water, performing a range of technician duties in larger ones, and management roles in smaller ones.

    Wastewater Technicians work in the area of drainage networks as well as in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. They also carry out their work independently on the basis of technical documents and regulations as well as legal requirements. They acquire information, plan, and coordinate their work. They document their services and take measures to ensure quality assurance, safety, health, and environmental protection at work. They are electro-technically qualified personnel. As with the Water Supply Engineering Technician, in larger facilities they may have wide-ranging technician roles, while in small facilities they may be classed as managers.

    For the treatment of wastewater, the Water Technician may work in

    • Municipal and industrial wastewater discharge facilities, and/or
    • Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities.

    Whether working with water support or wastewater treatment, the role of the Water Technician is to observe, identify, protocol, report, maintain, control and repair equipment and processes throughout the plant and the networks. For this purpose, they must have knowledge and expertise in mechanics, chemistry, biology, electrical, automation and environmental protection. Above all, health and safety matters most.

    Irrespective of where they work, and their particular responsibilities, the Water Technician’s role is driven by the absolute requirement for quality in many respects, including:

    • Continuity, consistency, and safety of supply
    • Safe removal, treatment, and recycling of wastewater
    • Environmental protection.

    Since water is the world’s most critical resource, the importance of this occupation and the quality of those fulfilling it, is second to none.

  • Industry 4.0

    Industry 4.0

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) are impacting on manufacturing and production processes to the extent that their effects are likened to a “fourth industrial revolution”; hence the term “Industry 4.0”. Others use terms such as “smart production”. The business case for introducing ICT is most immediately clear with large scale, complex manufacturing, where significant gains can result from early adoption. However, in diverse ways ICT will have a far-reaching impact, forcing rapid adaptation to the work people do, and the knowledge, skills and attributes that they need to do it with ICT enables

    • variety and individualization in products and services
    • shortened response times for production processes
    • greater productivity through reduced time and costs
    • information to be collected, shared and used in different ways for new purposes.

    For the Digital Production Systems Technician, implementing Industry 4.0 requires contextual awareness, including the business case as it affects their responsibilities. In the short term at least, the Technician may lack sufficient knowledge, skills and attributes to be able to grasp an assignment as a whole, since their initial and continuing training may have been in production technologies, or ICT. They may also not have gained the wider perspectives and understanding that are less crucial in more static environments. Therefore initially, and perhaps permanently in larger organizations, the required expertise and perspectives may need to come together in two or more personnel.

    The role of the Digital Production Systems Technician is to understand the business case for enhancement, and to design and implement technical responses accordingly. Assembled and commissioned hardware in virtual and real context using various digital tools and technology provide the basis for programming, and the design and implementation of cyber security measures on real and virtual production processes. Responding to the business need, smart maintenance may be a universal enhancement. Optimization may be more business specific and take several paths, especially in relation to the role of hardware, connectivity, the location of data points, and the purposes and types of information and intelligence.

    A flexible and open approach, combined with strong technical expertise, alertness to risk and security needs, and a recognition of the endless possibilities for optimization, are the hallmark of the outstanding and successful Digital Production Systems Technician.

  • Additive Manufacturing

    Additive Manufacturing

    Additive manufacturing is one of the newest and fastest developing branches of engineering. Traditional manufacturing methods, like milling and turning, are “subtractive” methods of manufacture: they start with a solid block of material, normally metal or an alloy, and cut away unwanted material until it forms the desired shape and size. Additive manufacturing adds, or “builds”, layer upon layer of material. It is more commonly known as 3D Printing.

    Additive manufacturing has several advantages over milling and turning. For example:

    • it can enable more complex shapes to be created
    • although the materials may be more expensive, It is efficient and economical in their use, because items need be no more solid than is strictly necessary, and weight is minimized
    • it can create stronger bonds between different materials
    • it can produce complex units as single objects, removing the need for several parts to achieve the overall desired shape and function
    • it can use a wider range of materials and composites
    • it is especially quick and responsive for manufacturing design and development, including research, prototyping, and trials.

    Despite its many strengths, additive manufacturing complements milling and turning; it is not a substitute for them. At least for the foreseeable future, 3D printers and new materials are relatively expensive. The printing process is also slow. Additive manufacturing therefore extends manufacturing’s capabilities and applications to a significant extent, especially where customization, lightness, complex shapes and functions, new materials, durability, and reliability are involved. As a result, additive manufacturing is being used very widely, with aerospace an early adopter, followed by medicine, transportation, energy, and consumer products.

    Additive manufacturing allows us to redesign many objects around us, and rethink approaches to the design of new ones. In this way it is potentially transformative and disruptive across the manufacturing process. While the layer-on-layer process is relatively slow, additive manufacturing’s overall impact on design and manufacture will be to shorten the production cycle, improve quality, and improve customer benefits.

    An additive manufacturing technician requires a wide range of knowledge, skill, and generic attributes. In relation to 3D, their role covers 3D scanning, metrology, scan-to-CAD redesigning, CAE, build process analysis, and post-processing. Beyond these, the role requires an appreciation of their properties and characteristics of materials, applied mathematics, and geometry in particular, and the ability to take advantage of the future possibilities of this new technology.

  • Industrial Design Technology

    Industrial Design Technology

    Industrial design technology is the creation of a product designed for mass consumption. It must succeed in both form (appearance) and function, and promote efficient manufacture. It must be technically feasible to produce, and meet a genuine need in the marketplace, at an acceptable price.

    To fulfil the role of an industrial design technician, knowledge, skills, and qualities are required in each of the following broad areas:

    • market research, graphic and wider communication skills
    • design and development processes
    • engineering practice, product analysis, and materials science/engineering

    In modern, successful economies, industrial design follows a thinking process, which can be summarized as follows:

    • Inspiration: understand; observe; perspective/orientation
    • ideation: develop ideas; prototype; test
    • implementation: “story telling” (create value proposition); pilot; create the business model.

    In start-ups and small companies, industrial design technicians may themselves cover all steps in this process. In larger organizations, they may support and contribute to either each phase of the process, or one or two phases only. For industrial design in larger organizations, teamwork is advantageous, to capitalize on a range of perspectives, attitudes, knowledge and skills.

    Industrial design technology combines two disciplines: design, and engineering, in order to innovate, with success as measured by the customer’s response and the producer’s viability and profit. It is essentially disruptive to current ways of doing and making things. This means that the industrial designer must stay constantly alert to new materials, technologies, markets, and consumer demand and benefit.

    In summary: the sequence of steps, starting with market research, ideas development, and design, before physically making and testing, often many times, distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design. This is a very important difference to the process of the craft-based designer, whose creativity is embedded in the act of making. Good industrial design technicians respect the importance of inspiration and ideation as a separate set of activities, before testing, improvement and manufacture.

  • Optoelectronic Technology

    Optoelectronic Technology

    Optoelectronics is a branch of Photonics (the physical science of light). Optoelectronics combines the physics of light with electricity. Optoelectronic technology covers the design, manufacture and manipulation of hardware that converts electrical signals into photon signals and vice versa.  Any device that does this can be referred to as optoelectronic.

    Optoelectronics is a broad and fast developing field, defined by its:

    • Products: for example, lighting, display, for communication and information, sensors, photovoltaic systems, and lasers
    • Applications: such as research, automation, medical treatment, engineering, construction, security, advanced manufacture, detection, and measurement.
    • Occupations: covering work roles at all levels of complexity and responsibility.

    This Description focuses on the occupational requirements of an optoelectronic (engineering) technician or associate professional. These personnel must work with accuracy and precision, meet detailed specifications and international quality standards, and have a wide range of technical capabilities. With the increase of energy-saving requirements and intelligent equipment, optoelectronic technicians need actively to ensure that their skills and knowledge remain up-to-date and meet industry standards and expectations.

    Optoelectronic technicians work directly and indirectly with and for customers, so must communicate with them, and serve them well. They must explain complex optoelectronics straightforwardly and help clients to use systems and products correctly. The nature of their work generally requires total respect for confidentiality, together with integrity, honesty, and a strong sense of ethics.

    In their scope of work, optoelectronic technicians may be involved in one, two, or all three stages of production, maintenance, and development, depending on the sector, size, and position of the employing organization, in the market or a supply chain.

    • First, these technicians will be engaged in the design, development, and manufacture of new devices or equipment, in either a leading or supporting role, depending on the scale and complexity of the commission. In this role they must work with optical, electrical, magnetic, and mechanical systems. They should also be able to use optoelectronic related software to assist their work.
    • Second, these technicians will install, commission, and maintain optoelectronic systems, which are complex and vulnerable, for both their operation and their quality, to the impacts of humidity, vibration, field intensity, and ground connections. They must be very familiar with equipment’s interior structure. They are generally responsible for ongoing maintenance, repair, and development.
    • Third, these technicians may be involved in quality control, testing, analysis, optimization, and reporting. As environmental concerns increase, and change accelerates with new technologies, this element of the role is expected to grow in importance. Optoelectronic technicians use specialist tools, including measurement and test equipment, and bespoke software.

    There are many employment opportunities for optoelectronic technicians, as self-employed freelancers or entrepreneurs, with product agents and engineering companies, and elsewhere. This is a fast-growing field of employment, within which the exceptional technician can have either broad or deep expertise, and use this to advance rapidly as optoelectronics expands in importance and demand.

  • Renewable Energy

    Renewable Energy

    Renewable energy is harnessed from different sources such as wind, water (hydroelectric), solar (photovoltaic effect), organic matter (biomass) and earth’s core heat (geothermal). The Renewable Energy Technician has the responsibility of ensuring efficient operation of equipment that collects, generates or distributes power from renewable energy sources.

    Work environment presents challenging conditions, requiring both technical and non-technical skills. Working indoors and outdoors, professionals can face adverse conditions including heights, inclement weather and remote locations, requiring close attention to health and safety legislation. Furthermore, technicians must have the strength to lift heavy equipment and the manual dexterity to handle power tools.

    The technician must be prepared to work individually or on a team, at residential or industrial customers and on small or major projects. Despite of facing different challenges, there are several professional skills which are common for different renewable energy sectors: problem-solving and perception skills to quickly identify and solve problems, comprising complex and detailed information, ability to visualise outcomes from occurring following modifications and detailed knowledge of tools, procedures and standards.

    The renewable energy sector is very innovative, with new technologies being deployed at a rapid pace. This feature is an important leading to the need for trained technicians whose required skills is likely to expand.

  • Robot Systems Integration

    Robot Systems Integration

    Within the last decade the number of robots installed in the world has increased dramatically. Each year approximately 400,000 robots are installed worldwide, a rate which is steadily increasing (source: IFR: International Federation of Robotics). This requires both the capacity to manufacture these robots, and the skilled human resources to install them.

    To be useful, the robot needs to be integrated within an overall process that will benefit from its availability. According to the robot application: pick and place, load and unload, palletization, welding, and so on, the role of the robot integrator is to think about and decide: what is the most appropriate type of robot to use; how to organize the parts flow; how best to program the robot; how to make the robot cell safe, etcetera. These are considerations for the robot manufacturer, the system integrator, and sometimes the end user.

    The robot system integrator must provide technical solutions to the robotization of all or part of a system by

    • incorporating a multi-articulating arm, together with the associated handling tools or special processes (such as handling, machining, painting, and welding), to increase competitiveness and
    • supporting the ergonomics, health and safety of the users and people around them.

    Through additional devices the robot can acquire several “senses”, such as sight and touch, in order to perform complex and precise tasks.

    The robot system integrator must be aware of technological developments in the manufacturing process, control systems, multi-articulated arm, and the evolution of regulations for robotization. Preliminary study, implementation, electrical connection for power and other automated systems, integration of peripheral equipment, and programming, as well as documentation, maintenance, and troubleshooting, are all essential tasks.

    Across the globe, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) outnumber large corporations. Collectively, they employ more people. SMEs represent the majority of businesses that have yet to realize the advantages of automation and robotics, as the big companies like the automobile industry have already done. SMEs can automate by investing in “custom” or “hard” automation, where the automation is designed and built for a specific purpose, or in flexible robot systems. Robot automation offers advantages of increased flexibility for meeting changing production requirements typically found in SMEs as well as lower investment through the use of standard industrial robots.

    All in all, robot system integration represents a new, growing, and universal opportunity for skilled and committed technicians.

Information and Communication Technology
  • Information Network Cabling

    Information Network Cabling

    The occupations related to “Information Network Cabling” are deeply related to the technology that supports modern information societies in which lives can be more comfortable and sustainable.

    All technologies that are utilizing AI, Big data, and Cloud services, and that are deeply penetrating our lives, are based on high-quality information networks. The infrastructure to enable this depends on “Information Network Cabling”.

    Information network cabling comprises the construction of the infrastructure of telecommunication networks such as those for data centres, mobile networks, Local Area Networks (LANs), Cable TV (CATV), industrial automation, and building automation. With the progress of the information society in recent years, the scope of work has expanded greatly, and expertise in the Internet of Things (IoT), and in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) connectivity is also becoming ever more important.

    This role of information network cabling technician is complex, and requires detailed specialized knowledge in order, independently, to design and install networks that meet clients’ needs and conform to recognized industry standards. The technician will create the foundations for the network, install cables appropriate for the intended use, maintain, test, and commission the network.

    Communications networks are crucial to the efficiency of business and commerce. Network failure can result in wasted time and lost revenue. Robust and reliable communications networks are therefore critical to business success.

    The technician/installer may work for either a telecommunication or an electrical installation company. They will install network cabling for businesses both large and small, or for domestic users, for services such as cable TV, telephone, and broadband installations.

  • IT Software Solutions for Business

    IT Software Solutions for Business

    The rapid pace of globalization over the past decade has been largely driven by developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). IT specialists are increasingly in demand in several areas, one of which is providing software solutions for businesses.

    The development of software solutions to improve business productivity encompasses many different skills and disciplines. Key to these is an awareness of the fast-changing nature of the industry and the ability to keep up with the rapid pace of change.

    IT software solution professionals always work closely with clients to modify existing systems or create new systems. They may modify “off the shelf” software and integrate it into the existing systems. They often work as part of a team of software professionals responsible for the requirement specification, system analysis and design, construction, testing, training, and implementation, as well as maintenance of a business software system.

    The tasks performed by IT software solution professionals include but are not limited to the following:

    • Review current system and present ideas for improvement, including cost benefit analysis
    • Analyse and specify user requirements
    • Produce detailed specifications for new systems or for modifications to existing systems
    • Develop software systems and test the software solution thoroughly
    • Prepare user training materials, train users, and present the software solution to users
    • Install, implement, and maintain the software system

    IT software solutions professionals can be employed in large, medium, and small enterprises as software engineers, in consulting firms as consultants, and in software houses as contractors.

    They can operate in a wide variety of roles including in a development role to tailor-make or customize software solutions, in a supporting role to operate systems, in a business analyst role to provide solutions to simplify and automate routine office and business activities, as well as in a training role to train users in using the application software.

  • Print Media Technology

    Print Media Technology

    The Print Media Technician is involved with all aspects of the printing process from the initial planning and preparation, through the print run, checking for consistent quality to cleaning up after the print run is complete. The work is usually large-scale production of printed materials for a range of clients. Specifically, Print Media Technology involves the production of printed material using an offset sheet-fed press and other equipment to create finished, printed products for commercial and packaging industry. This occupation is responsible for producing all printed material at a printing operation.

    The Technician will usually work in printing businesses or publishers and will use complex specialist equipment. A detailed knowledge of the equipment and materials used is vital to produce high quality products that comply with the specification in a cost-effective and efficient manner.

    The Print Media Technician requires an in-depth knowledge of handling, troubleshooting, and maintaining printing factors such as ink, paper, and equipment. Generally, production of the printed product will use a traditional ink-on-paper process, but increasingly technicians are using digital printing technologies for shorter runs and utilize variable data.

    Print Media Technicians also have to be able to mix custom ink colours and operate cutting equipment, folding and finishing equipment to produce a job to a customer's specifications. Quality control equipment like densitometers and photo spectrometers are used to verify and adjust the print quality.

  • Web Technologies

    Web Technologies

    Web technology encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the design, development, production, and maintenance of websites. The skills required of a web developer are diverse, often to the point where it is difficult for a developer to excel in all aspects. As a result, a team may cover the Web design process, with each member of the team having their own strengths, specialities, and role in the development process.

    Web technologies involve implementing specific solutions by using web technologies that follow the business rules and objectives outlined by the client. Web developers develop a professional relationship with their clients, interacting with them in order to develop a deep understanding of the requirements, and convert these into a website specification. Strong design and communication skills, coupled with research techniques and a grasp of target audiences, markets and trends, will ensure initial client satisfaction.

    Having completed the website content strategies, system architecture planning, user interface design, and user experience design, the Web developer then integrates the website with third party tools and platforms. During the development process Web developer implement the design, using their programming skills in order to create dynamic functionalities, test, and debug the website by using a variety of devices. The current trend is also to integrate the website with social media to take advantage of the available online marketing platforms.

    All these skills may apply equally to the re-design or an upgrade of an existing website.

    A Web developer has many employment opportunities. This can range from being a self-employed freelancer, or an entrepreneur, to being employed by advertising agencies and web development companies as well as many different other types of organizations. Web developer positions may be broad in scope or specialize in an area such as graphic design for the Web, user interface design, digital user experience design, front end development, back end development, content management systems development as well as client and project management. Whichever role a Web developer chooses to specialize in, they may need access to ICT facilities, open source libraries, and frameworks.

    High performing Web developers may have broad or specialist web-related skills. They must understand artistic values, have solid user interface design skills, and programming skills, and take personal responsibility for being constantly at the forefront of trends and web technology. They must also be responsive to clients and have the ability to work in structured and unstructured teams and groups. These qualities enable the Web developer to contribute and take advantage of this rapidly developing aspect of modern communications technology.

  • IT Network Systems Administration

    IT Network Systems Administration

    An IT Network Systems Administrator works in small or large organizations in the commercial and public sectors, offering a wide range of IT services which are critical for the operation of daily business. Any ‘downtime’ is costly for an organization therefore the IT Network Systems Administrator has a responsibility to work professionally and interactively with users in order to meet their needs and ensure continuance of the systems and service levels they require to perform their roles effectively. The IT Network Systems Administrator also offers advice and guidance on the development of systems and services to take the organization forward.

    The IT Network Systems Administrator works in diverse environments including network operations centres, internet service providers, data centres, e.g. Amazon and climate-controlled server rooms. He or she offers a wide range of services based on user support, troubleshooting, design, installation/upgrading, and configuration of operating systems and network devices.

    The IT Network Systems Administrator may at some stage in their career specialize in user support, design, installation of operating systems or configuration of networking devices. Irrespective of this, work organization and self-management, communication, and interpersonal skills, problem-solving, a dedication to research/keeping up to date with industry developments and a consistently methodical and investigative approach are the universal attributes of the outstanding IT Network Systems Administrator.

    In a mobile labour market, the IT Network Systems Administrator may work in teams, or alone, or both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced IT Network Systems Administrator takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From ensuring businesses remain consistently in operation, with limited IT systems breakdowns, to contributing to the design of new systems, every process matters and mistakes cost the business money.

    With the fast globalization of IT systems and the international mobility of people IT Network Systems Administrators face rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented IT Network Systems Administrator there are many commercial, public sector and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, and to keep up to date with fast changing industry developments. The diversity of skills associated with IT network systems administration is therefore likely to expand.

  • Cloud Computing

    Cloud Computing

    The positions responsible for the design and implementation of information technology infrastructure in a public cloud environment can span multiple roles including, Systems Administrators/Engineers, Database Administrators, Network Administrators/Engineers, Storage Administrators/Engineers, Systems/Network/Solutions/Enterprise Architects, programmers/developers, and similar technology-driven roles which shoulder the business and functional responsibilities for architecting infrastructure design. Due to the ever-expanding features and capabilities of public cloud providers, this list of associated infrastructure specialists is also expanding.

    Infrastructure Architects are responsible for the overall design and direction for system and application deployments. These architects have traditionally created designs that have spanned multiple office locations as well as corporate and collocated data centres. With the growing prevalence of public cloud deployments, they have added IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) opportunities to their list of deployment tools. This allows these technology specialists to work towards migration solutions, offsite storage solutions, dynamic resource elasticity, and other design paradigms to create solutions that best fit the needs of each organization.

    Systems Administrators/Engineers are able to utilize public cloud providers in order to automate, expand, streamline, simplify, and accelerate their deployment models. Utilizing their experience in automation, these technologists can programmatically deploy infrastructure using the command line, language-specific SDK integrations, and infrastructure templating capabilities. This group is able to manage their technology footprint through the use of managed services to offload the administration of tasks such as managing a centralized activity logging by defining permissions and recording events. The ability to define a solution and then replicate that design to multiple environments and locations can be a significant responsibility of the position along with managing the integration of cloud computing offerings into existing technology solution sets.

    Database Administrators are increasingly engaging with public cloud providers as it gives them greater control over the details of their deployments. They are able to utilize resources on demand rather than waiting for resources from other departments. Additionally, they can use the advanced features of cloud providers such as managed database services for caching, relational databases, and NoSQL data solutions.

    Storage Administrators gain the flexibility to scale their storage needs without concern for hardware availability or capital expense. Using multiple storage offerings from cloud vendors, storage-related technology specialists can build solutions that best fit their storage needs using the tools provided by their vendor, or solutions from the vendor’s 3rd party partners to deliver scalable, highly available primary and disaster recovery storage solutions. Implementing backups, deploying shared and clustered storage solutions, system snapshots, and data migrations are just a few examples of activities that can be automated via multiple programming languages using public cloud vendors and 3rd party partner solutions.

    Storage Administrators gain the flexibility to scale their storage needs without concern for hardware availability or capital expense. Using multiple storage offerings from cloud vendors, storage-related technology specialists can build solutions that best fit their storage needs using the tools provided by their vendor, or solutions from the vendor’s 3rd party partners to deliver scalable, highly available primary and disaster recovery storage solutions. Implementing backups, deploying shared and clustered storage solutions, system snapshots, and data migrations are just a few examples of activities that can be automated via multiple programming languages using public cloud vendors and 3rd party partner solutions.

  • Cyber Security

    Cyber Security

    In recent years there has been an explosive growth in online business transactions, the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing. Simultaneously, IT has become an official and unofficial political tool, as well as a means of new types of warfare. Many countries now deliver essential services online, to the extent that citizens without access to IT may become isolated and disadvantaged. This growing collective and individual dependency on IT places a significant obligation on IT service providers to safeguard their systems and users from intentional and unintentional breaches to the security of data and whole systems. As a result, the importance of the Cyber Security Professional cannot be overstated.

    A Cyber Security Professional works to protect an organization’s computer systems networks, to ensure their robustness and prevent hackers from accessing and/or stealing sensitive information and data. The role typically involves configuring firewalls, IPS/IDS, server roles/services and web security solutions to protect confidential information.

    A Cyber Security Professional also monitors security breaches and investigates violations. They may conduct penetration testing by simulating attacks to search for vulnerabilities in their networks before they can be exploited for malicious reasons. Their forensic tasks include gathering, preserving, processing, analysing, and presenting computer-related evidence to mitigate networks’ vulnerability to criminal, fraud, and other hostile activities. They have a range of tactics, techniques, and procedures, using a full range of investigative tools and processes.

    A Cyber Security Professional usually also supports organizations’ disaster recovery plans, which describes the steps and procedures to restore proper function of an organization’s IT systems and networks after a disaster or attack. These are of paramount importance, financially, reputationally, and for the continuation of essential services. Plans normally include preventative measures such as regular backing up of and transfer of data to an offsite location.

    In a fast-moving sector, Cyber Security Professionals must stay one step ahead of potential cyber-attackers. They must keep up with the latest methods attackers used to infiltrate computer systems, as well as with the new security technologies that can help organizations to counter these threats with robust systems and measures.

  • Mobile Applications Development

    Mobile Applications Development

    Mobile Applications Development refers to applications development for mobile communication terminals. With the onset of the mass global information age, the market for these applications is booming, since “apps” are widely and increasingly used in people's work, life, and entertainment. The development of mobile applications is overtaking more traditional communication, improving the efficiency of work, and massively extending services and benefits for users. This is leading to new opportunities for employment and self-employment in organizations of all sizes, entrepreneurship and contracting.  These roles especially appeal to young adults, due to their confidence and expertise with new technologies. 

    Depending on the Mobile Applications Developer’s relationship to clients and their needs, the role may be deep and highly specialized, or broad, across the entire applications development process. An employed Developer may have a tightly defined role within a large global company in the digital economy, such as Uber and Alibaba. By contrast, a self-employed contractor expects to have a wide range of development skills in close, short- or longer-term, relationship with a variety of clients and needs. Globally, the expertise in demand covers creativity, design, and technical skills, together with the traversal skills of work organization and management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving and innovation. 

    In summary, the scope and range of the mobile application development role, is to:

    • receive and analyse a brief for planning purposes
    • apply design thinking to create flow diagrams
    • within a test-driven development framework, create designs within the given parameters, and in consultation with the client
    • build the systems architecture, choosing the platform in keeping with the brief
    • select the required modules, and code the application, regularly testing for functionality
    • continuously test, modify and optimize the application for functionality, reliability, and optimization, relative to the user experience.

    With the growing take-up of services on the go, using smart mobile terminals such as phones, tablets and watches, the role of Mobile Applications Developer offers both strong immediate work opportunities and a basis for involvement in the global evolution of applications development. 

Construction and Building Technology
  • Wall and Floor Tiling

    Wall and Floor Tiling

    A tiler generally works on commercial and residential projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore, the tiler has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. Tiling is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The tiler works internally and externally, including in the homes of customers and on building sites, in all weather conditions, and on small and major projects. The work includes the laying of tiles of ceramics, mosaic, and natural stone on walls, floors, and staircases in houses, commercial, industrial, and public buildings, churches, swimming pools, outside installations and façades to provide protective, and decorative finishes. It also includes the construction of small walls and steps from bricks or blocks.

    The tiler will interpret drawings, set out and measure, remove any existing covering, prepare surfaces, lay the tiles in the desired pattern, grout, and finish to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, and working accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding tiler. Whether the tiler is working alone (many are self-employed or sub-contractors) or in a team on large projects, the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. Experienced tilers may also specialize in one area of work such as mosaics and they can work for specialist tiling firms specializing for example in artistic work or competition swimming pools.

    From working safely and tidily through to exceptional planning and scheduling, concentration, precision, accuracy, and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish, every step in the process matters. Mistakes are largely irreversible and can be very costly

     With the international mobility of people, the tiler faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented tiler there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with tilers is therefore likely to expand.

  • Plumbing and Heating

    Plumbing and Heating

    A plumbing and heating technician works on commercial, residential, agricultural, and industrial projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore, the practitioner has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. Plumbing and heating is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The plumbing and heating technician works internally and externally, including the homes of customers and on small and major projects. He or she will plan and design, select and install, commission, de-commissioning, test, report, maintain, fault find, and repair systems to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, flexibility, and a deep body of knowledge are the universal attributes of the outstanding practitioner.

    Whether the plumbing and heating technician is working alone or in a team, the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From working to provide a safe and reliable plumbing and heating service, in accordance with relevant standards, through to diagnosing malfunctions, and commissioning plumbing and heating systems and components, precision, accuracy and attention to detail every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible, costly, and potentially life threatening.

    With the international mobility of people, the plumbing and heating technician face rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented practitioner there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, they carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse needs, cultures, and trends. The diversity of skills associated with plumbing and heating is therefore likely to expand.

  • Electrical Installations

    Electrical Installations

    An electrician works on commercial, residential, agricultural, and industrial projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore, the electrician has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. Electrical installation is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The electrician works internally or in teams, in the homes of customers and on small and major projects. They will plan and design, select and install, commission, test, report, maintain, fault find, and repair systems to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication, and interpersonal skills, problem solving, flexibility and a deep body of knowledge are the universal attributes of the outstanding electrician.

    With a constant developing technology an electrician will face new challenges where new systems will be needed and new working methods have to be used.

    Whether the electrician is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From working to provide a safe and reliable electrical installation and maintenance service, in accordance with relevant standards, through to diagnosing malfunctions, programming and commissioning home and building automation systems and create documentation, concentration, precision, accuracy, and attention to detail every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible, costly, and potentially life threatening.

    With the international mobility of people, the electrician faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented electrician there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with electrical installations is therefore likely to expand.

    An electrician also has many career opportunities including advancing to leading or managerial positions.

  • Bricklaying

    Bricklaying

    A bricklayer generally works on commercial and residential projects. They are responsible for building or repairing associated structures in accordance with the construction plans. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore, the bricklayer has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. This includes working harmoniously with other trades in order to optimize efficiency and minimize mistakes.

    Bricklaying is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The scale of work can vary from small projects to major projects. The bricklayer works internally and externally and in all weather conditions. He or she will interpret construction drawings, perform setting out and measurement, and construct to a high standard finish.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation, and creativity, working accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding bricklayer. Whether the bricklayer is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy.

    From working safely and tidily with resilience and endurance through to exceptional planning and scheduling, concentration, precision, accuracy, and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    With the international mobility of people, the bricklayer faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented bricklayer there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with bricklaying is therefore likely to expand.

  • Plastering and Drywall Systems

    Plastering and Drywall Systems

    The skilled plasterer may work on both internal and external plastering and rendering work. Much modern internal work is completed using drywall systems which involve the plasterer creating metal frames and installing plasterboard before the application on the final surface. These constructions can be complex and include curves and openings for doors and windows. Traditional plastering involves the preparation of the background prior to application of the plaster surface. The plasterer will prepare materials for use and be fully aware of legislation and official guidance relating to the preparation and use of materials. In addition to plastering flat surfaces, the skilled plasterer will create and install decorative mouldings. Plasterers will also be required to make repairs.

    The plasterer may work on large construction sites for domestic, commercial, or industrial use, in single domestic and commercial premises or on historic buildings and heritage sites. Much plastering work on larger sites is sub-contracted and as such many skilled plasterers will be self-employed, meaning that they have to take responsibility for tax and other earnings-related regulation.

    A high degree of accuracy, care, and skill is required. Preparation for plastering work will include complex mathematical calculations. The practitioner needs to be able to read, interpret, and analyse complex specifications describing the work required and be able to convert these plans into reality.

    A range of materials can be used depending on the site and the planned use of the finished building. Some materials can be harmful, so care must always be taken by the plasterer to prevent injury or damage in use or disposal of waste.

    Plasterers often form part of a team, working efficiently, and effectively with other skilled craftsmen in a logical and well-planned manner.

  • Painting and Decorating

    Painting and Decorating

    A painter and decorator works in the commercial and public sectors and is responsible for the external and internal appearance of a building and its protection from water, rust, corrosion, mould, and insect infestation. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service required and the payment made by the client. Therefore, the painter and decorator has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the client in order to give satisfaction and thus maintain and grow the business.

    Painting and decorating is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it. The painter and decorator works internally and externally in very diverse environments, for example in companies, factories, schools, hotels, the homes of clients, and on building sites in all weather conditions. They may offer a range of services, from interpreting client requirements to the environmental and sustainability of materials/drawings, advising on designs/colours, painting, spraying, decorative coatings, wallpapering, gilding, and sign writing to a high standard.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation, creativity, and the ability to prepare surfaces thoroughly with meticulous care including hazardous surfaces such as lead and asbestos. These are the universal attributes of an outstanding painter and decorator. In a mobile labour market, the painter and decorator may work in teams, or alone, or in both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced painter and decorator takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From carefully determining the requirements of the client, working safely and tidily, exceptional planning and scheduling, precision and attention to detail to the fine gilding of objects and finishing of furniture, every process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and costly.

    With the international mobility of people, the painter and decorator faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented painter and decorator there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, trends, and fashions. The diversity of skills associated with painting and decorating is therefore likely to expand.

  • Cabinetmaking

    Cabinetmaking

    Cabinetmaking covers the manufacture of free-standing and built-in furniture and units, using wood at the sole or main material. It may include the design of furniture, but normally comprises the creation of furniture and units from designs prepared by others. Cabinetmaking differs from joinery through the quality of the wood and associated materials used, and the intricacy and aesthetic quality of the finished items. There is, however, some overlap between cabinetmaking and joinery.

    A cabinetmaker generally works on commercial and residential assignments of a high quality and value. They will therefore exhibit very high standards of skill and professionalism in order to justify clients’ expectations and willingness to pay. Most cabinetmakers work in small companies which have to be very sensitive to their reputation and market in order to sustain their businesses’ viability.

    The cabinetmaker will produce furniture and fittings in a workshop, at least until installing fitted items. However, in order to meet clients’ needs, including for the items to add to the aesthetic qualities of their environment they are placed in, they will know intimately where bespoke items are intended to be placed. For items produced speculatively rather than for known clients, the cabinetmaker will have a clear view of the types of location and setting that will show the items at their best.

    The cabinetmaker will produce, interpret and/or adapt drawings, set out and measure, cut, form joints, assemble, install if need be, and finish to a high standard. The quality of their work will show in:

    The selection of the wood and other materials;

    The placing of the wood to bring out its particular characteristics;

    Construction techniques which allow for the natural movement of timber to achieve longevity and quality in the furniture piece;

    The selection of additional materials including veneers and fittings;

    The near-perfect fit of each part following accurate measurement, cutting and assembly, and

    The final appearance of the item.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, working precisely and accurately are the universal attributes of the cabinetmaker. They assume a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From working safely through to exceptional planning and organizing, accuracy, concentration, and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    Modern technology and mass production have enabled furniture and fittings, previously available only to the wealthy, to be more widely available. However, for those with disposable income and an eye for quality, the cabinetmaker is able to produce furniture and fittings that are a lasting pleasure both to use and to look at. In this discerning market the outstanding cabinetmaker will always be in demand.

  • Joinery

    Joinery

    A joiner generally works on commercial and residential projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore, the joiner has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business. Joinery is closely associated with cabinet making and carpentry plus other parts of the construction industry and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The joiner is usually based in a workshop because the formation of various joints requires specialist machinery, but sometimes undertakes installations in the homes of customers and on building sites. He or she will produce and interpret drawings, set out and measure, cut, form joints, assemble, install, and finish to a high standard. The joiner usually produces items such as interior and exterior doors, windows, stairs, tables, and bookshelves.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, working precisely and accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding joiner. Whether the joiner is working alone or in a team the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From working safely through to exceptional planning and organizing, accuracy, concentration, and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish, every step in the process matters. Mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    With the international mobility of people, the joiner faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented joiner there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with joinery is therefore likely to expand.

  • Carpentry

    Carpentry

    A carpenter generally works on commercial and residential projects predominantly undertaking tasks using timber and timber related products. Carpentry is closely associated with other trades that make up the construction industry, working both individually and as part of a team to complete projects. A carpenter undertakes work both internally and externally within homes of customers and on construction sites in all weather conditions.

    They are expected to interpret drawings, set out and measure, cut, form joints using both hand and power tools, assemble, and install finishes to a high standard. Carpenters also construct and install components that are seen on the inside and outside of residential or commercial buildings such as sidings, shutter, and roofing materials. They also make moulds for concrete formwork (called shuttering in some countries). Carpenters may also be involved in the design and construction of timber-framed buildings such as commercial buildings, dwellings, garages, sheds, gazebos, pergolas, and playhouses.

    Work organization, self-management, communication, and interpersonal skills are integral parts of a carpenter’s skill set along with problem solving, innovation and creativity. The ability to work precisely and accurately are fundamental attributes of an outstanding carpenter. Whether the carpenter is working alone or in a team, the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy.

    Every step in the carpentry process matters; mistakes may be largely irreversible and could carry a very high cost. A Carpenter must work safely; demonstrate exceptional planning and organization skills, along with concentration and stamina paying attention to detail in order to achieve an excellent finish.

    Carpenters must have technology skills to be able to use digital instruments such as GPS location devices, laser levels, electronic distance measurement devices and digital callipers. They must also be able to use specialist construction CAD software and project management (BIM) software.

    With the international mobility of people, the carpenter faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For a talented carpenter there are many commercial and international opportunities. However, these also carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends.

    A Carpenter usually receives his or her training by working as an apprentice with a more experienced professional. With this training, a carpenter has the ability to complete tasks that are more intricate and achieve a higher degree of accuracy and finish.

  • Landscape Gardening

    Landscape Gardening

    The key role for a landscape gardener is to design, install, and maintain gardens and landscaped areas. The landscape gardener will need to meet with clients to discuss their proposed projects, provide advice and guidance on the practicalities of the project, and carefully interpret the client’s wishes.

    Projects can be varied and incorporate private and public gardens, parks, public open spaces, sports, and recreation venues, playgrounds, and other landscaped areas. The landscape gardener must be able to develop innovative schemes that meet the needs of clients and comply with planning regulations, while retaining a vision of how the finished project will fit into the overall area and how garden spaces interact with urban environments.

    The landscape gardener may be involved at all stages of a project from the initial consultation and design, throughout the installation process, project managing and supervising the installation team, to providing advice and guidance on on-going maintenance and development as the garden grows and matures.

    A detailed knowledge of both hard and soft landscaping is required, including knowledge of plants and trees in order to produce and implement a balanced plan that takes account of the area’s advantages and limitations relating to soil type and structure, geography, climatic conditions, and planned use. Knowledge and skills relating to hard landscaping and construction are also essential. Related skills such as electrical installation, plumbing, and irrigation systems are also needed to produce an overall project that is sustainable and has longevity.

    A wide range of plants, natural recourses, and other materials are used by the landscape gardener. They must therefore be aware of the impact of such materials on the environment, both in terms of sustainability of manufacture, logistics, and also the impact of landscaping a natural environment and its wildlife.

    Gardens and landscaped areas enhance the quality of life for millions of people across the world by providing beautiful areas for recreation and relaxation, open spaces in dense urban environments, appropriate spaces for people of all ages and abilities, and facilities that support community activity and cohesion.

    For the landscape gardener there are global opportunities to be involved solving environmental problems and in revitalizing existing established habitations.

  • Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

    A refrigeration and air conditioning technician works on commercial, residential, public, and industrial projects, including transportation and storage. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product and service required and the resulting cost and price; therefore, this branch of engineering covers a wide range of products and services. It is also essential for the refrigeration and air conditioning technician to meet high and growing standards of service in order to comply with the requirements of the customer and maintain and grow the business. Refrigeration and air conditioning is closely associated with other parts of the construction and transportation industries at all stages and is equally affected by rapid change in these sectors, including growing environmental trends, and requirements.

    The refrigeration and air conditioning technician generally works inside domestic, commercial, or public buildings during and after construction and production, and on projects of all sizes and types. He or she will plan and design, install, test, commission, report, maintain, fault find, and repair systems to a high standard. Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, flexibility and a deep body of knowledge are the universal attributes of the outstanding practitioner.

    Whether the refrigeration and air conditioning technician is working alone or in a team, the individual takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From ensuring a safe and reliable installation and maintenance service, in accordance with relevant standards, through to diagnosing malfunctions, upgrading and commissioning, and fault finding and correction, the skills of concentration, precision, accuracy, and attention to detail at every step in the process are crucial. Mistakes may be very expensive and damaging, while substandard work will significantly undermine the performance of the building or equipment that it is intended to serve.

    The cold chain plays a significant role in modern global trade in all food commodities, and skilled refrigeration and air conditioning technician are crucial in this connection, as well as in supplying human comfort at home and in buildings. Reducing environmental impact by using environmentally friendly refrigerants (low GWP-refrigerants), minimizing leakage, and reducing energy consumption. Minimizing heat load and improving efficiency is an important part of this occupation’s contribution to a sustainable future on Earth, by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels like coal, gas and oil, in favour of electricity generation.

  • Concrete Construction Work

    Concrete Construction Work

    A Concrete Construction Worker generally works on commercial and residential projects. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the product required and the payment made by the customer. Therefore, the Concrete Construction Worker has a continuing responsibility to work professionally in order to meet the requirements of the customer and thus maintain and grow the business.

    Concrete Construction Work is closely associated with other parts of the construction industry, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    The Concrete Construction Worker works internally and externally, including on the homes of customers and on building sites, in all weather conditions and on small and major projects. They will interpret drawings, set out, measure, and construct which includes formwork, reinforcement and concrete, and finish to a high standard.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, working accurately are the universal attributes of the outstanding construction practitioner. The Concrete Construction Worker works in a team. Each team member takes on a high degree of personal responsibility and autonomy.

    From working safely and tidily with resilience and endurance through to exceptional planning and scheduling, concentration, precision, accuracy, and attention to detail to achieve an excellent finish, every step in the process matters and mistakes are largely irreversible and very costly.

    With the international mobility of people, the construction practitioner faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented Concrete Construction Worker there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with concrete and formwork is therefore likely to expand.

  • Building Information Modelling

    Building Information Modelling

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a process for creating and managing information on a construction project across the project lifecycle. One of the key outputs of this process is the Building Information Model, the digital description of every aspect of the built asset. This model draws on information assembled collaboratively and updated at key stages of a project. Creating a digital Building Information Model enables those who interact with the building to optimize their actions, resulting in a greater whole life value for the asset.

    With the new BIM era, the design and construction industry is dealing with an explosion of software technologies made available under the umbrella of “BIM”. As a result, approaching the design, engineering and construction of buildings is changing exponentially from design storytelling to engineering calculation and delivery of a finished building. This means that existing professions face different demands, new workflows and new skills in performing the role of a Building Information Modeller.

    Collaboration is vital to the success of this role, BIM demands, more than ever, a high level of people-skills in the form of communication, collaboration and proactivity. BIM requires the recruitment of professionals with better people skills. To bring architects, architectural technologists, engineers and contractors together, to combine and enhance their collective output, calls for the complex interplay of technical skills, BIM and communication skills, all of which must be at a professional standard.

    Computer aided design is the use of computer systems as a tool to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a BIM model. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the BIM modeller, improve the quality of design, improve communication through documentation, and create a database for project implementation. The CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for cloud sharing, cloud collaboration, Investigation, manufacturing or other Construction processes. The technical and architectural models and images must convey information such as Project location, building organizing elements, structured data, according to application-specific conventions. CAD is also used to produce computer animation, VR and AR experiences during the whole BIM cycle including advertising and technical manuals.

    CAD is an important industrial tool for BIM implementation and is the way construction projects come true. Its process and outputs are essential to successful solutions for construction, engineering and manufacturing problems, with the ability to create a federated model by merging multiple models to allow soft and hard clash detection analysis. CAD software helps us explore ideas, visualize concepts through photorealistic renderings and movies, and simulates how the BIM project will perform in the real world.

    New technologies are creating new occupations through enhancement, additions, and alterations. The role of Building Information Modeller is an emerging occupation with exciting implications for future career pathways.

Transportation and Logistics
  • Autobody Repair

    Autobody Repair

    Autobody repairers realign both the structure and the panelling of both light and heavy-duty vehicles after they have been involved in collisions. This can often be a complex process as each collision will present different degrees and directions of damage. The repaired vehicle must conform to the stringent specifications established by the vehicle manufacturer and meet both their tolerances and their safety specifications. An autobody repairer needs to be familiar with MET (mechanical/electrical/trim) components and their function as well as the specific and often complex safety restraint systems (SRS) fitted to modern vehicles. The autobody repairer returns the vehicle to a condition where it is ready for refinishing.

    An autobody repairer works in a facility dedicated to repair and is equipped with the machinery and equipment suitable to repair a wide variety of modern passenger cars. An autobody repairer’s work is often divided between major and minor collision damage; however, skills in both areas may often be used on the same vehicle. In a major collision repair the autobody repairer will mount the vehicle onto a specialized body jig with which he or she can diagnose the direction and extent of the misalignment to the car body structure. He or she then attaches heavy hydraulic pulling equipment to the body and uses this pulling force to reverse the damaging force.

    After the misalignment has been rectified to the structure the repairer will normally have to remove damaged structural and non-structural members which are replaced with new sections or part sections using various welding processes and/or riveting and bonding. For a minor collision an autobody repairer may replace or repair non-structural panels to a condition suitable for refinishing. Repairers must be able to use vehicle body alignment benches and associated measuring equipment (universal and fixed bracket) as a means of assessing the extent of damage and reinstating the structure to its original specifications. An autobody repairer must be a skilled welder who is capable of joining a variety of metals such as low carbon steel, high strength steels or aluminium alloys using metal active gas welding (MAG), and resistance/inverter spot welding.

    He or she must be able to select the correct consumables for the metal being welded and adjust the machine to provide an efficient high quality weld. In some circumstances body panels may be replaced using bonding and riveting equipment. The repairer must be able to prepare, adjust and use this equipment effectively following manufacturers specifications to reinstate damage panels.

    Autobody repairers must be able to remove damaged sections with minimum disruption to surrounding body work and re-attach/re-align the parts to reinstate the integrity of the body shell. These parts or panels may be welded, bolted or riveted.

    For minor damage that does not require the replacement of a part or panel an autobody repairer will use a variety of repair tools to remove the damage and reinstate the panel’s original contours. These may involve a range of shaped hammers and ‘dollies’, bumping files, body files, pry bars and oil stones.

  • Aircraft Maintenance

    Aircraft Maintenance

    An aircraft maintenance technician works in the commercial, military, and public service sectors, performing a range of processes on aeronautical products. They have a critical responsibility to work professionally to ensure the safety of customers and operational personnel while maintaining the reputation of the team or organization.

    The aircraft maintenance technician normally works in an aircraft hangar. However, there are times when working outdoors is required. They may work for large and small organizations and occasionally directly for individual customers. They will undertake a number of processes including inspection, servicing, modifying, troubleshooting, removal, installation, rigging, testing, and repairing. An aircraft maintenance technician may specialize by working on particular aeronautical products such as helicopters, airliners UAVs (Unmanned Aeronautical Vehicles), or tilt wing aircraft. Key attributes required by all aircraft maintenance technicians wherever they work are efficient work organization, self-management, communication, interpersonal skills and problem-solving. They must have the ability to work safely and rigorously adhere to industry regulations and manufacturer’s instructions. These universal traits are the benchmark of an outstanding aircraft maintenance technician.

    In a mobile labour market, the aircraft maintenance technician may work in teams, or alone, or in both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced aircraft maintenance technician takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From safeguarding the safety of the customer through scrupulous attention to safe working, to undertaking complex repairs, every process matters and mistakes can be life threatening. The aircraft maintenance technician is one of the last lines of defence to ensure the safety of the aircraft before flight.

    As a part of a global industry, the aircraft maintenance technician faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges such as maintaining drones or space vehicles. For the talented aircraft maintenance technician there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with different regulations, cultures, and technological advancements. The diversity of skills associated with aircraft maintenance is therefore likely to expand.

  • Automobile Technology

    Automobile Technology

    The modern Light Vehicle Automobile Technician is may be employed in an independent workshop that is not associated with particular manufacturers or is closely associated with a major manufacturer of light vehicles. Their expertise may be greatest with that manufacturer’s vehicles; however, depending on the situation and range of services offered by the workshop, they may also handle other manufacturers’ vehicles.

    The competent Light Vehicle Automobile Technician will service, diagnose, and repair a range of light vehicles. For diagnosis, and repair, depending on the nature of the workshop, they may use the manufacturers’ equipment, or other service/repair equipment parts, materials, and procedures. Therefore, according to a workshop’s, access to vehicle service/repair information the technician’s experience may be deep or broad, or both. In every garage and workshop success is measured in time, correct diagnosis, and repair, and repeat business.

    Most automotive service/repair workshops are small businesses or cost centres that work to tight financial parameters. The light vehicle automobile sector is volatile, being dependent on the wider economy and heavily affected by technological advances and environmental concerns. The highly skilled Automobile Technician keeps abreast of continuous changes in the sector, whether these are to do with performance, safety, or green energy sources. They will deeply understand vehicles’ electrical/electronic systems, and their integration; have physical stamina, coordination, and kinaesthetic skills, and be versatile. The most competent technicians are assigned the more complex diagnostic tasks, the most advanced vehicles, and those incorporating the latest technologies. This person may rapidly progress to more senior roles as trainer, supervisor, planner, and/or manager.

  • Car Painting

    Car Painting

    Car painters (refinishers) are responsible for reinstating the pre-accident paint finish to cars after the structure and/or the panels have been repaired or replaced. They may also be asked to completely repaint a whole vehicle either to change its colour or reinstate its newness. Car painters may also become involved in matching colours to an original colour no longer available or to colours that prove difficult to match. A car painter must match the colour, shade, and texture of the adjoining panels that are not being painted.

    Car painters can work in various work environments from an autobody repair shop to an aircraft hangar, dependent upon what vehicle or transport system they are painting. They work to apply paints inside an enclosed spray booth/oven in order to protect the environment from harmful products.

    Car painters prepare panels or vehicles to receive paint. They may carry out minor panel repairs and apply undercoats, colour coats, and clear sealant coats which provide the high gloss levels required. They may be required to identify a colour code using various methods, mix the correct amount of colour to pre-determined formulae, and spray test cards to test the suitability of this colour match to the original colour and shade.

    A car painter needs to be aware of time schedules and may often be working on several vehicles at one time while waiting for previously applied materials to dry.

    Car painters (refinishers) may be required to refinish a wide range of items such as passenger cars, racing cars, vintage and classic vehicles, commercial goods vehicles, trains, aeroplanes, static structures or furniture. They may be required to refinish a wide variety of materials such as metals, plastics, composite materials, or wood.

  • Heavy Vehicle Technology

    Heavy Vehicle Technology

    The Heavy Vehicle Mechanic maintains, diagnoses, and repairs large machines and industrial equipment including towed and self-propelled equipment used in mining, forestry, agriculture, landscaping, and material handling industries. The mechanic must be able to maintain, diagnose, and repair internal combustion engines and components on stationary, mobile, tracked rubber-tired equipment, ground-engaging equipment, and earth-moving equipment.

    Maintenance, diagnosis, and repair can involve individual components or entire systems, requiring the mechanic to have skill with engines, hydraulics, drive trains, electronics, braking systems, and much more. The mechanic must use specific tools to diagnose function, make adjustments, repair, or replace defective components or systems, test repairs for proper performance, interpret instructions in technical manuals, write service reports, and ensure that the work meets manufacturers’ specifications and the requirements of legislation. The mechanic is frequently the interlocutor between the employer, the customer, and the manufacturer. This experience can allow the mechanic to advance to senior roles such as trainer, supervisor, or manager.

    Although mechanics often specialize in certain machines or equipment, either by choice or as a result of employment, the diversity of heavy equipment and, along with rapid changes in technology, require broad knowledge and adaptability. Mechanics must also be able to work alone or as part of a team, at a variety of hours, and in an employer’s shop, a customer’s building, or outdoors in urban or rural locations, regardless of weather. Machines often require quick intervention to enable uninterrupted activity to resume.

    The work is most rewarding for those who enjoy working with their hands and are logical, curious, and interested in problem solving. The mechanic also needs good vision, hearing, sense of feel and sense of smell to diagnose problems. The occupation requires strength and stamina. Proper safety standards must be maintained at all times to avoid risk of injury involved in working on heavy vehicles and with power tools.

  • Freight Forwarding

    Freight Forwarding

    The Freight Forwarder manages the movement of freight from one location to another on behalf of a customer. They generally do this on a commercial basis and within a strong legal and financial framework. The modes of transport may include road, rail, air or sea, or a combination of these. The Freight Forwarder requires specific expertise to ensure that all necessary documentation conforms to the requirements of customs, insurance and the law (IATA Conventions, Maritime Law, ICC Codes, and any international regulations governing international transportation).

    This work role may be part of a large or small logistics organization with the main purpose of moving freight on behalf of other organizations and individuals. It may also be situated within a national or international supply chain.

    The work environment for the Freight Forwarder is normally an office equipped with ITC services. The scope of the role will be determined by the size of the organization; generally, the larger the organization the more specialized the role will be. Specialist functions may also be outsourced or subcontracted to agents. However broad or narrow the role, its core is the preparation of quotations, the processing of orders and the calculation of costs and price. The Freight Forwarder deals with written and telephone correspondence, sometimes using two or more languages, normally including English. They also prepare delivery notes and deal with complaints. In smaller, less compartmentalized organizations the Freight Forwarder may also need to coordinate transport and warehousing. Increasingly this role operates in a paperless environment.

    Although the Freight Forwarder is individually responsible for the quality of their own work, since the movement of freight is a 24-hour operation, they have a mutual dependency on both other Freight Forwarders and also the broader quality of the organization’s procedures and systems. The Freight Forwarder is the customer-facing part of the organization, whose transactions lead to contracts which must be robust, cost-effective and encourage repeat business. The quality of the Freight Forwarder’s communication with the customer from initial enquiry through to safe delivery is vital. This is especially the case with customer complaints, which require a close knowledge of each stage of the agreed service and efficient problem solving within the given procedures.

    The Freight Forwarder is dependent on each stage of the freight moving process working as intended. Therefore, their work will be affected by many human and non-human factors. Locally and nationally there are seasonal factors, including weather and major festivals and holidays, and also infrastructural factors. For international freight, the factors multiply, one of the greater complexities being customs. Depending on the place of the organization within the market for logistics and supply, some freight may require exceptional care, or urgency, or priority treatment. So, although the Freight Forwarder works within tight procedures, they must also be highly responsive to the large and small issues that impact on their role daily or occasionally.

    Freight forwarding and supply is a growing sector; this is a long-term trend associated with globalization. Therefore, it is a very attractive area for employment. At the same time, the sector is very vulnerable to the disruptive impact of technology on a large and rapid scale as networks are integrated and robotics advance. A Freight Forwarder who has the capacity to be both exact and responsive as required will be in a strong position to take advantage of this volatility and growth for the benefit of both commerce and society.

  • Rail Vehicle Technology

    Rail Vehicle Technology

    Rail transit for goods and people is a vast, worldwide sector. As need and demand grows for sustainable forms of transit, the potential for rail to replace less energy-efficient forms of transportation will increase. This in turn will drive innovation. Rail transit is efficient, safeguards the environment, and adds to people’s travel experience and quality of life. Rail is the world’s first green transportation system, due to its safety, convenience, punctuality, and speed.

    All rail transit operations require maintenance, which is the focus of rail vehicle technology occupations. Modern rail vehicles use integrated technologies, and therefore require maintenance technicians both to have diverse skills and expertise, and to work in teams to extend their collective expertise yet further. The quality of the team’s joint output is a mark of their expertise.

    Overall, the rail vehicle technician’s role comprises vehicle inspection, maintenance, disassembly, assembly, repair, commissioning, and troubleshooting. To maintain the safe operation of an entire system’s or sub-system’s vehicles, the rail vehicle technician must work efficiently, within deadlines, both to solve problems, and to carry out preventative measures to ensure continuity of service. They should fulfil planned maintenance operations according to specifications and process standards.

    A rail vehicle maintenance team usually comprises two or more technicians who together carry out mechanical and electrical engineering operations. For both commissioning and repair, they work on high voltage current collection and traction systems, air supply and brake systems, door operation systems, vehicle bogie systems, air-conditioning systems, as a minimum, to ensure the safety, efficiency and economy of vehicle’s operation.

    High performing rail vehicle technicians have comprehensive knowledge, understanding, and expertise relevant to rail vehicles. They must understand rail vehicles’ structures and the working principles, standards, and processes of their components, and of vehicle control, maintenance, and repair. They must stay abreast of current and emerging rail vehicle technology developments, and use these in their work processes. They should be able to contribute their special expertise to the team, to enhance its performance. These demands require rail vehicle technicians to keep improving their skills for solving more complicated diagnostic tasks, and for repairing vehicles that adopt the most advanced and newest technologies. With further professional development, a capable and committed rail vehicle technician can be part of the continuing global advance of rail transit, including in leading technical or managerial positions.

Creative Arts and Fashion
  • Jewellery

    Jewellery

    The skill of jewellery manufacturing consists of the making of fashion accessories using precious metal. A jewellery manufacturer can make exclusive individual pieces for use, pieces ready to be set with precious gemstones or prototypes for reproduction in numbers through lost-wax casting. A jeweller may also be required to replicate a piece directly, use jewellery making skills to refashion or repair an existing piece. A jewellery manufacturer will usually work from detailed drawings created through direct consultation with a client or by a jewellery designer. These designs can be developed by the jeweller through the use of hand sketching or the use of Computer-Aided Design (CAD). They will, therefore, need to be able to correctly interpret these drawings to create a jewellery piece as envisioned by themselves, a client, or a designer. Excellent communication skills and sufficiently in-depth knowledge in many areas of jewellery production and design are critical when understanding what the client or designer wants to achieve.

    A jeweller can do all the work on the product, but collaboration with other jewellers is possible. This allows for the sharing of manufacturing operations to better manage time and efficiency. It is essential that a jeweller understands production processes, even if they do not perform these themselves. An example of this would be outsourcing to a third party to complete a specific task or sharing a workspace with other jewellery makers or technicians with other specialist industry skills.

    Dealing with precious metals, a jeweller needs to be precise, work economically and avoid wastage of materials. The work is intricately detailed and requires a high level of skill, focus, and concentration. They must have a working knowledge of metal characteristics and how to prepare metal alloys should the need arise.

    Once the jeweller has finished a piece, it may progress to further phases of the manufacturing process requiring jewellery industry skills other than jewellery making e.g., gem-setting and casting. For this reason, a jeweller must have some knowledge and understanding of other jewellery industry skills. They must have an appreciation of gemstones, their characteristics, cuts, uses and impact on the finished piece. Similarly, they must be aware of the different phases of reproduction through casting and as mentioned above, a familiarity with CAD.

    Jewellers work with highly valuable materials, therefore must act with complete honesty and integrity. They must be fully aware of security and the regulations relating to the purchase, production and sale of precious metals, gemstones, and finished pieces. Whether working as part of a production team, or in the capacity of a sole manufacturer, a jeweller must have a thorough understanding of production costs, to enable them to arrive at an acceptable selling price, while maintaining profitability.

    Lastly, there is now a consumer ethical awareness that drives decision making when commissioning or purchasing jewellery. A jeweller should be aware of and understand the social and ethical consequences when acquiring precious materials from around the world. They must, at all times endeavour to uphold these ethics in relation to sourcing precious metals and gemstones e.g. conflict diamonds, worker exploitation, environmental damage, etc.

  • Floristry

    Floristry

    The florist may work in one of several sectors of the floral Industry including being self-employed, working on commissioned projects or working in the retail sector. Florists must demonstrate business acumen and interpersonal skills when dealing with clients. Advanced levels of customer care and sales skills are crucial. Themed and bespoke floral projects are commissioned for various social and cultural events such as weddings, celebrations, funerals, and product launches. The florist must have planning and management skills in order to offer appropriate expert advice to the client whilst interpreting the vision and scope for the finished project.

    Horticultural materials are delicate, easily damaged, or spoilt and perishable. Therefore, the florist must have knowledge of post-harvest care and conditioning of the materials that they work with, and apply extensive knowledge of effective sourcing, purchasing, and storage of all horticultural materials.

    Floral designs, whether for a small bouquet or a large installation for a major event, require the florist to be innovative, creative and to demonstrate artistic and design knowledge that incorporates aesthetics and practicalities. The florist must apply principles and elements of design to composition and colour, additionally demonstrating ideas by the expert use of appropriate techniques.

    The florist will use their expertise and knowledge of flowers, plants, botanical, non-botanical materials, and accessories to produce floral projects. There is a diverse range of practice within the floristry industry. Some florists will work in retail outlets, and preparing bouquets and arrangements for sale, and must therefore be keenly aware of their market and commercial restraints. At the other end of the professional spectrum, a florist may be commissioned to provide floral displays for major high-profile international events. Such events require interpretation of themes and effective working within large teams, collaborating with other professions in high-pressure situations with tight time constraints.

  • Fashion Technology

    Fashion Technology

    The Fashion Technology practitioner creates garments. The technical skills involved include design, pattern construction, cutting, and garment manufacture and finishing.

    The practitioner may work in one of several sectors but often they are self-employed and work on commissioned projects or in the retail manufacturing sector or in sampling garments for production. As such they need to have business acumen and strong interpersonal skills when dealing with clients. Excellent customer care and selling skills are important. As some work is often commissioned for important events, the practitioner must understand the needs of the client and be able to offer appropriate expert advice whilst interpreting the vision for the finished project. Customer briefs must be clearly understood and followed accurately.

    Fabrics are often expensive, delicate, and easily damaged if handled incorrectly. Given this, the practitioner must be respectful of the raw materials with which they work and apply extensive knowledge of effective sourcing, purchasing, handling, use, and storage of all materials. Sustainability, ethics and budgets are all serious considerations when sourcing materials and selecting sub-contractors.

    The design of a garment requires innovation, creativity, artistic talent, and design skills which incorporate aesthetics as well as function and other design practicalities. The practitioner must apply the rules and theory of composition including design elements and principles as well as excellent construction technique. They are often creative and artistic, with a good eye for design and the ability to create pleasing and functional garments, suitable for their purpose. In addition, a thorough knowledge and understanding of specialist equipment and its use is essential. Another requirement is a high level of technical knowledge in patternmaking and construction techniques. Different fabrics will have in various ways regarding design, as well as react in various ways to the manufacturing process and these characteristics must be considered throughout the design, preparation, and production process.

    There is a wide range of practice in the fashion sector. Some practitioners produce small ranges for retail outlets or high-class fashion houses or prepare bespoke garments ordered by individual clients. At the other end of the professional spectrum, the practitioner may work in an industrial setting, producing prototypes for mass production. Practice also varies across the world. The fashion industry is truly global: for example, a garment may be designed and prototyped in one country and sub-contracted for manufacture in another.

    Wherever employed, it is essential that the practitioner is aware of current and emerging fashions and trends in the fashion industry. Equally important is an awareness of new developments in fabrics and textiles as well as machinery and equipment. Significant damage can be done to a business and its reputation if fashion trends are misread.

  • Graphic Design Technology

    Graphic Design Technology

    Graphic Design Technology comprises many different skills and disciplines in the production of graphic design and output. The diversity of the skills required in the industry are very broad: it is common for people working in this field to be specialists in a particular aspect. As a result, a team may cover the Graphic Design Technology process, with each member of the team having their own strengths, specialities, and roles.

    Graphic Design Technology involves working with external and internal clients to create unique solutions to their needs; these may also include printing or online publication production or integrating digital media capabilities for visual communication. People working in this industry often work closely with their clients and must be effective communicators so that they can achieve the client’s objectives successfully. They require strong interactive, research, design, and technical skills in art and design to meet industry standards. In order to achieve these, they need to understand the target audience, markets, trends, cultural differences, and what the client wants. They must be able to work in either formal or informal teams, or independently.

    After completing the research and planning stage, a project is interpreted to form a design in appropriate industry specific software. The design must be set up with the correct technical specifications for output. It is essential that practitioners understand all phases of the procedure including the constraints of the specified output process. These skills also apply to re-designing or updating a design.

    There are various employment opportunities within the global creative industry. This may include becoming a freelancer, business owner, or being employed by an advertising, marketing, design, or printing company. They may also be employed by a company with a design department or as a stand-alone in-house designer. Practitioners may have a broad role, or specialize as a graphic designer, graphic artist, prepress operator, typographer, typesetter, type designer, image manipulation specialist, illustrator, art director, production manager, digital printer, information designer, publisher, brand or packaging specialist.

  • Visual Merchandising

    Visual Merchandising

    A visual merchandiser creates window and interior displays in shops and department stores thus is essentially responsible for the “look” of the retail outlet. The chief aim of a visual merchandiser is to maximize sales by communicating with the target audience and creating a positive atmosphere. The visual merchandiser communicates directly with the target audience through their designs and creates a positive impression which in turn impacts on the sales revenue of the business. Whilst not possible to precisely measure the impact of the visual merchandiser’s displays it is accepted that they are an increasingly important element of the marketing and sales mix of a successful retail business.

    The visual merchandiser works in retail outlets, which are part of a group with central support functions and in small independent shops where there is greater personal autonomy and responsibility. The activities a visual merchandiser undertakes are based on interpreting and researching a brief, creating a design, and implementation – working with the products and their props.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity: the ability to develop original ‘eye-catching’ concepts with the WOW factor which positively engage the target market and attention to detail/perfection are the universal attributes of the outstanding visual merchandiser.

    The visual merchandiser may work in teams or alone, depending on the size of the business. In medium to large businesses they work very closely with marketing and sales teams. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced visual merchandiser takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From understanding the goals and targets of marketing and sales departments, interpreting the brief correctly and understanding the behaviour of target markets to creating a display with the WOW factor every stage in the visual merchandising process matters and displays have a close relationship with sales revenues.

    With the globalization of visual imagery and the international mobility of people, the visual merchandiser faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented visual merchandiser there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, trends, and fashions. The diversity of skills associated with visual merchandising is therefore likely to expand.

  • 3D Digital Game Art

    3D Digital Game Art

    The games development sector comprises three occupations or work roles: the designer, the artist, and the programmer. The 3D Digital Game Artist takes a designer’s brief and, through a combination of conceptualization, creativity, selectivity, technical, and specialist skills, completes the brief to the satisfaction of clients. The 3D Digital Game Artist receives, conceptualizes, and interprets design briefs on the basis of their market knowledge and skill sets, and the given scope and limits of the briefs. The skills required of the 3D Digital Game Artist can be broken down further into 2D concept art, texture painting, 3D modelling, rigging, and animating.

    After interpreting a brief, the 3D Digital Game Artist must produce a 2D digital concept of the required assets for the game, which could include objects, characters, and environments. This requires the development of good silhouettes enabling the designs can be recognized immediately without detail, with greyscale values that highlight the important details of an asset, in order to define a colour scheme based on the Artist’s knowledge of colour balance, saturation, and mixing.

    The 3D Digital Game Artist must then produce a 3D mesh of the asset, making decisions for geometry, triangle count, symmetry, and silhouette, and modelling the edgeflow. UV unwrapping is used to flatten a 3D model into a 2D set of shells that a texture can be painted onto. This requires the ability to assign enough 3D mesh from the model for the model to render enough detail. The placement of the UV shells is a meticulous job. Artefacts must take into account the bleeding effect of colour on smaller versions of textures dependent on hardware, so these shells should be grouped by base colour.

    Textures are then produced to create materials that may be applied to the 3D model, taking into account the colours, secularity, and opacity of various parts of a model. Some textures are painted by hand; some require the use of photographic references and others require a digital process to calculate ambient occlusion and normal maps for shadows and detail. Next, the model may be rigged with bones in the 3D software in order to animate it either in the 3D software or the games engine.

    An artist may work in a team led by an Art Lead or Director, or in small companies with a programmer and designer. Artists may work in open areas for creative sharing, or in isolation on a strictly confidential basis.

    Despite tremendous growth in the sector, the 3D Digital Game Artist’s role has evolved and split into specialisms, but otherwise remained constant, with an ongoing appreciation of aesthetics, colour, structure, and form as well as movement. The best artists are able to lead art teams solving visual errors and producing assets that operate on the fringes of the available technology to achieve the most absorbing experiences possible in a videogame.

Social and Personal Services
  • Hairdressing

    Hairdressing

    A hairdresser generally works in the commercial sector, offering a range of services and treatments to the hair for individual clients. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service required, and the payment made by the client. Therefore, the hairdresser has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the client in order to give satisfaction and thus maintain and grow the business. Hairdressing is closely associated with other parts of the service sector, and with the many products that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    Hairdressing also has an important therapeutic role in supporting individuals’ self- esteem and confidence. It also helps to relieve the effects of illness and can aid recovery.

    The hairdresser works in diverse environments including large, medium, small, or mobile salons, client homes and in product companies and training institutions, film and television productions, theatre, wig work, hair replacement, technicians, session stylists and product research and design. They may offer a wide range of services, including cutting, colouring, styling, chemical reformation, and special hair treatments. Alternatively, the hairdresser may specialize, for example by becoming either a men’s or ladies’ hairdresser, or a colourist. Irrespective of this, work organization and management, communication and client care, the ability to analyse hair types and conditions, and to work safely and to manufacturers’ instructions, are the universal attributes of the outstanding hairdresser. In a mobile labour market, the hairdresser may work in teams, or alone, or in both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced hairdresser takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From safeguarding the health and wellbeing of the client through scrupulous attention to safe working, to achieving exceptional effects for special occasions, every treatment matters and mistakes are largely irreversible.

    With the globalization of visual imagery, the worldwide market in hair and beauty products, and the international mobility of people, the hairdresser faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented hairdresser there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, trends, and hair types. The diversity of skills associated with hairdressing is therefore likely to expand, with the WorldSkills Competition reflecting the skills and attributes of the most outward looking and talented entrants to the sector.

  • Beauty Therapy

    Beauty Therapy

    A beauty therapist generally works in the commercial sector, offering specialist services, treatments and advice for the skin, body care, massage, and make-up of individual clients. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service required, and the payment made by the client. Therefore, the beauty therapist has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the client in order to give satisfaction and thus maintain and grow the business. Beauty therapy is closely associated with other parts of the service sector, such as hairdressing, fashion, and media and with the many products and services that support it, normally for commercial purposes.

    Beauty therapy also has an important therapeutic role in supporting individual’s self-esteem and confidence. It may help to ameliorate the effects of illness and can aid recovery.

    The beauty therapist works in diverse environments, including large or small salons within leisure and health related organizations. The specialist services and treatments offered by the beauty therapist relate to the face, body, feet, hands, and nails. The beauty therapist may specialize, for example in manicure, pedicure, or skin care. Irrespective of this, work organization and management, professional attitude, client care and relationships are the universal attributes of the outstanding beauty therapist.

    The beauty therapist works in a 1:1 relationship with clients and can be part of a wider team. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced beauty therapist takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From safeguarding the health and wellbeing of the client through scrupulous attention to safe working, to achieving exceptional make-up effects for special occasions, every treatment and client matters.

    With the growing worldwide demand for beauty therapy services and associated products, and the international mobility of people, the beauty therapist faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented beauty therapist there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and trends. The diversity of skills associated with beauty therapy is therefore likely to expand.

  • Pâtisserie and Confectionery

    Pâtisserie and Confectionery

    The Pâtisserie and Confectionery trades have highly skilled professionals who produce a wide range of intricate and predominantly sweet items. They produce various confectionery products such as hand finished chocolates, candies, and petits fours for service in hotels and restaurants or for retail in specialist shops and outlets. Pâtissiers/Confectioners produce a full range of hot and cold desserts, cakes, biscuits, and iced products for service in luxury/boutique hotels, restaurants, and pastry shops for retail sale. They may also produce elaborate display pieces using chocolate, sugar, ice, marzipan, or other decorative materials and ingredients. Some may specialize in producing decorated and themed cakes for special events.

    A high degree of specialist knowledge and skill is required.

    Pâtissiers/Confectioners will have undergone years of training in order for them to develop the levels of skill required. They are proficient in a wide range of specialist techniques to produce and decorate confectionery and sweet items. An artistic talent and gastronomic flair are required alongside the ability to work effectively and economically to achieve outstanding results within set timeframes, budgets and dietary constraints.

    In some circumstances the Pâtissiers/Confectioners will need to work directly with clients, so good customer service skills are required alongside the ability to discuss a client’s needs and to offer advice and guidance. The ability to work on their own initiative is essential.

    The Expert practitioner will work using a range of specialist equipment and materials. The

    Pâtissiers/Confectioners must take account of the quality of ingredients, respect those ingredients, and work to high levels of food hygiene and health and safety.

    Pâtissiers/Confectioners are likely to work in high class hotels and restaurants. In some countries it is often the case that specialist retail shops sell hand-made and decorated pastry products, cakes and confectionery will use the skills of the Pâtissiers/Confectioners. Some professionals may work on a self-employed basis and work directly to client’s briefs for specialist products.

  • Cooking

    Cooking

    The professional chef can work in a wide range of establishments including high-class and casual restaurants, hotels, welfare caterings such as hospitals and residential homes, theme parks, airlines, ships, clubs, retail HMR and Food To-Go, Fast Food outlets, and industrial canteens; providing catering services to both guests and staff. The range of skills and customer expectations will vary according to the workplace. There is also a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service provided and the payment made by the customer.

    The professional chef can also deliver different styles of dining such as fine dining, banqueting, casual dining, cocktail dining, canteen and take-away dining, as well as different styles of food service including plated, a la carte, and set menu service, buffet self-service, silver service, canteen counter service, and breakfast service. As well as the skill of cooking, the role of a chef will also demand further skills that relate to cooking in a commercial setting and therefore working towards a budget or expected profit margin. These skills include menu compilation, food costing, purchasing, storage, utilization of food commodities and minimizing wastage, as well as the control, work/time organization, planning, and communication required in managing a kitchen brigade.

    Professional chefs need to demonstrate outstanding skills in food preparation (with both speed and accuracy), in production (using varied cooking methods and techniques) and in the final presentation and flavour. They are expected to create and adapt dishes that meet the expectations of demanding customers with varying nutritional and religious dietary requirements. Fashions and trends in cuisine also fluctuate, so it is important that the professional chef keeps abreast of these trends and adapts their product and service accordingly The Professional chef needs to be adept at managing food cost and maintaining environmentally-friendly sustainable food production by making use of locally sourced and seasonal ingredients, as well as controlling unnecessary waste by creatively re-using trimmings and reducing ingredient wastage.

    Strict maintenance of the highest level of personal and food hygiene and safety are paramount at all times. Failure to fulfil this requirement can have a devastating impact on a diner’s health and well-being, and may cause irreparable damage to the restaurant’s reputation and business.

    Commercial kitchens are equipped with complex specialist equipment that must be used carefully to avoid accident and injury. Kitchens are potentially dangerous places to work. Staff work under intense pressure, often in a confined space, working with hot food and dangerous tools and equipment.

    Effective communication skills are essential for the chef. A professional kitchen is a high-pressure environment where teams of chefs specializing in various aspects of the menu work together to produce the entire meal. Co-ordination of the kitchen brigade is essential to quality assure the dishes being sent to the restaurant and to meet very tight service time frames. In addition, the kitchen team need to work effectively with other departments in the hotel or restaurant to ensure a good overall experience for the guest. - A customer is expecting a memorable meal experience which incorporates the setting and ambiance of the restaurant, staff interaction, and outstanding customer care, as well as exceptional food.

    With the globalization of cuisine, chefs can work all over the world. Talented chefs are always in demand and have opportunities to travel and work in some of the most interesting and exciting international destinations. This carries with it the need to appreciate diverse cultures, especially with regard to using locally available ingredients, and observing local dietary requirements and traditions.

  • Restaurant Service

    Restaurant Service

    The restaurant service practitioner provides high quality food and drink service to guests. A food service practitioner generally works in the commercial sector, offering a range of services to customers. There is a direct relationship between the nature and quality of the service required and the payment made by the guest. Therefore, the practitioner has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the guest in order to give satisfaction and thus maintain and grow the business.

    The practitioner is likely to work in a hotel or restaurant. However, the size, nature and quality of these establishments can vary enormously from internationally renowned hotel chains to smaller, privately-owned, more intimate restaurants. The quality and level of service provided and expected by guests will also vary. The styles of service will be dependent on the targeted customer and can range from simple self-service operations to elaborate service styles where dishes can be prepared at the guests’ table. In its more elaborate form, food, and drink service can be likened to a form of theatre.

    High quality food and drink service requires the practitioner to have extensive knowledge of international cuisine, beverages, and wines. They must have a complete command of accepted serving rules and must know the preparation of speciality dishes and drinks at the guests’ table or in the bar. The food server is the most important person in attending to the guests and providing the meal experience. Skill and resourcefulness, good manners, excellent interaction with guests, aplomb, excellent personal and food hygiene practices, smart appearance, and practical ability are all essential.

    A wide range of specialist tools and materials will be used for the service of specialist dishes, drinks, and wines. The practitioner will be familiar with their use in addition to the more usual pieces of equipment that are found in most dining situations.

    Irrespective of the working environment, excellent communication, and customer care skills are universal attributes of the outstanding practitioner. Food service personnel will work as part of a team and with other teams in the hotel or restaurant. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced practitioner takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. This ranges from safeguarding the health and wellbeing of the guests and colleagues through scrupulous attention to safe and hygienic working practices, to achieving exceptional experiences for special occasions.

    With the globalization of gastronomy, the expansion of travel for pleasure and business, and the international mobility of people, staff in the hospitality industry enjoy rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented restaurateur there are many commercial and international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures, trends, and environments. The diversity of skills associated with restaurant service is therefore likely to keep expanding.

  • Health and Social Care

    Health and Social Care

    A health and social care practitioner offers a range of support to individual clients and their family and has a continuing responsibility to work professionally and interactively with the client in order to ensure their holistic care needs are met. Whilst the health and social care practitioner may work directly for the client they are normally employed by an organization within the health and social care sector. Health and social care is closely associated with the medical profession.

    The health and social care practitioner works in diverse environments, including the homes of clients, hospitals, community day care, and residential and nursing homes. He or she manages health, physical, and psychosocial well-being, support of growth and development, caring and rehabilitation. The support provided is based on assessing planning, delivering, and evaluating a care programme.

    Work organization and self-management, communication and interpersonal skills, problem solving, innovation and creativity, the ability to understand, empathize and work with clients to improve the quality of their life, are the universal attributes of the outstanding practitioner.

    The practitioner may work in a team or alone or in both from time to time. Whatever the structure of the work, the trained and experienced practitioner takes on a high level of personal responsibility and autonomy. From accurately assessing the needs of clients through to building client relationships and delivering exceptional care for clients in a range of circumstances, every interaction matters and mistakes could have a serious, life threatening impact.

    With the increasing international mobility of people, the health and social care practitioner faces rapidly expanding opportunities and challenges. For the talented assistant there are many international opportunities; however, these carry with them the need to understand and work with diverse cultures and systems/regulations. The diversity of skills associated with health and social care is therefore likely to expand.

  • Bakery

    Bakery

    The baker is a highly skilled professional, with high level of knowledge about food and nutrition, who produces a wide range of bread and pastry items.

    The baker produces all varieties of fresh and tasty bakery products, made of any kind of grains. Different types of fermentation and other processes will be used to turn the raw material in to sweet or savoury products. For example, wheat bread, rye bread, artisan bread, enriched breads, laminated products, and ingredients to flavour their bakery products.

    These items will appear in a large number of bakeries. Bakers may also produce elaborate displays of decorative breads using creative skills and knowledge.

    A high degree of specialist knowledge and skill is required. Bakers have undergone years of training in order for them to develop the level of skill required and a good understanding of sustainability. Bakers will be proficient in a wide range of specialist techniques and technology to develop and create a variety of bakery products. An artistic talent and artisan skills with the attention to detail are required, alongside the ability to work effectively and economically in order to achieve outstanding results within set timeframes.

    Bakers must have knowledge about the functions, compatibility, and reactions of ingredients to create a new recipe.

    Bakers must have a good understanding about reformulating recipes and adapting to a changing environment. The ability to work on their own initiative is essential. They will use a range of specialist equipment, technology, and materials in an environmentally friendly manner. The professional baker must take account of the quality of ingredients and the health and safety requirements of customers. They must respect those ingredients and work to high levels of food hygiene and safety.

    Specialist bakers can develop careers, such as owning, managing, and working in all types of bakeries including high quality, family, and specialized shops. Careers in teaching and working with ingredients and machinery companies within the baking industry are also options.

    It is often the case that specialist retail shops sell hand-made and decorated pastry products, artisan breads, and decorative dough’s, which are prepared using the skills of a specialist baker.

  • Hotel Reception

    Hotel Reception

    Globalization, social and demographic changes, and the evolution in transport are decisive factors in driving a rapid growth in the tourism industry and travel for business. Travel and tourism therefore plays an important role in social and economic growth throughout the world.

    Hotels of many types, sizes and ownership are an essential part in this industry, providing accommodation and associated services to guests from across the globe. They may be part of international hotel chains which market their services on consistency and familiarity for the frequent or regular guest. Alternatively, they may promote distinct characteristics based on their locality, history, architecture, and targeted clientele. Quality and price generally go together; for reserving accommodation, an international rating system of stars can provide a reasonable indication of what might be expected within the range of prices associated with a locality.

    The role of Hotel Receptionist is key to every hotel establishment. At the hotel’s reception area guests receive their first impression of the hotel and therefore of their probable hotel experience. This is where the primary communication with the hotel staff is established. The quality, courtesy and promptness of service can make a great difference, positively or negatively, to the guest’s relationship with the hotel and their satisfaction during their stay. This in turn affects the hotel’s reputation and repeat business.

    The Hotel Receptionist works mainly in the hotel’s front office. Hotel receptionists need to use a wide range of skills continuously. These may include knowledge of local and general tourism information, good verbal and written English, computer literacy, good manners and conduct and grooming, excellent communication and social skills, problem solving, competence with figures and cash handling, and the application of procedures for reservations, reception, guest services and check out.

    If the Hotel Receptionist possesses these skills and uses them well, the scope for promotion and mobility is great. This is a truly international and global occupation in an open and fluid part of the service sector.